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I c. -^ 


"The spirit t.)f aiuiiiuily, — cnshi'iiiwl 

In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, 

In picture speaking with heroic tongue, 

And with devout solemnities entwined — 

Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind : 

Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along 

Hence motiims, even amid the vulgar throng, 

To an harmonious decency confined, 

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The city one vast temple, — dedicate 

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/ne. To 



. A 










Professor of Architecture in King's College, London 
Fello-w of King's College, London 



Instructor in the Architectural Studio, King's Coll., London 
Ggd-win Bursar R.I.B.A., 1893. R.LB.A. Essay Medallist, 1896 









:lll.S\Vl(_K )'KK.s.s: — CHARLES WHITTINGH A 1\1 AND CO. 




1. Influences. 

I. Geographical. 

II. Geological. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Religion. 

V. Social and Political. 
VI. Historical. 

2. Architectural Character. 

3. Examples. 

4. Comparative Table. 

5. Reference Books. 



140. Castle of Heidelberg. 

141. Rathhaus, Cologne. 

142. House at Nuremberg. 

143. Town Hall, Antwerp. 

144. San Gregorio, Valladolid. 

145. Burgos, Casa Miranda. 

146. Town Hall, Seville. 

147. Escurial, Madrid. Plan. \j- , 

148. Blenheim Palace. ,, / " 


149. Montacute House. Plan. 

150. Little Moreton Hall. 

151. Gateway of the Schools, Oxford. 

152. Hatfield House. 

153. Bay Windows, Kirby Hall. 

154. St. Paul's Cathedral. Section of Dome. 


156. ,, ,, Section across Nave. 

157. Somerset House. 

158. The Houses of Parliament. 

159. Arches. Compared. 


List of Illustrations ..... 


General Introduction ..... 


Egyptian Architecture ... 


Western Asiatic Architecture 


Greek Architecture .. _ - . . . 


Roman Architecture . , . 


Early Christian Architecture in Rome and Italy 


Byzantine Architecture .... 


Romanesque Architecture (General Introduction 


,, ,, in Central Italy . 


,, ,, in North Italy . 


,, ,, in South Italy . 


French Romanesque ..... 


German Romanesque. .... 


English Architecture (Romanesque and Gothic) 


Anglo-Saxon Style .... 


Norman or English Romanesque Style 


Early English ..... 


Synopsis of Gothic Vaulting 


Decorated ...... 




French Gothic ...... 


Belgian and Dutch Gothic .... 


German Gothic ...... 


Italian Gothic 


Spanish Gothic ...... 


Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) 


Italian Renaissance ..... 


The Florentine School 


The Roman School .... 


The Venetian School .... 


The Milanese and Genoese Schools 


The Rococo Style .... 



French Renaissance . 

German Renaissance . 

Belgian and Dutch Renaissance 

Spanish Renaissance . 

English Renaissance . 

The Elizabethan Period 
The Jacobean Period . 
The Seventeenth Century 
The Eighteenth Century 
The Nineteenth Century 

Glossary of Architectural Terms 
Index of Buildings and Architects 








Acropolis, Athens Frontispiet<! 


1. Map of Egypt. 

2. Sphinx and Pyramid. 

3. Great Pyramid of Cheops. Section. 

4. Tomb of Beni Hassan. 

5. .Small South Temple of Karnac. Plan. 

6. ,, ,, ,, Section. 

7. Temple of Philae, Entrance. 

8. Temple at Edfou. Facade. 

9. Obelisk on Thames Embankment. 

10. Egyptian House. 

11. Origin of Egyptian Column. 


12. Map of Babylonia and Assyria. 

13. Columns from Persepolis. 


14. Map of Greece. 

15. Greek Doric Order. Part elevation of Parthenon. 

16. Method of Lighting Parthenon. Fergusson's Theory. 

17. ,, ,, ,, Botticher's Theory. 

18. Plans of Temples compared. 

19. Diagram of Intercolumniation. 

20. Greek Doric Order. "\ ^ , 

21. Roman „ „ jCompared. 

22. The Parthenon — Angle of Colonnade. 

23. Greek Ionic Order. \ ^ , 

24. Roman „ „ jCompared. 

2v Greek Corinthian Order. 1 ^. , 

26. Roman „ „ /Compared. 

27. Monument of Lysicrates. 


28. Doorway of the Erechtheion. 


20. Greek Mouldinsis. ) ^ , 

r, AT 1 I- c Compared. 

30. Roman Mouldmgs. ) ^ 

31. Greek and Roman Ornament. 

32. Classic side of King's College Museum. 

33. Plan of the Roman Empire. 

34. Maison Carree, Nismes. 

35. Interior View of Pantheon. 
3t). The Colosseum. Exterior. 

37. Amphitheatre at Verona. 

38. Arch of Septimius Severus. 

39. House of Pansa. 

40. Pompeian House. 

41. Doorway of the Pantheon, Rome. 


42. St. Clemente, Rome. Section. 

43- .> » Pl'-^n- 

44. ,, ,, ■ Interior \ iew. 

45. Basilica of St. Paul. 

46. St. Maria Maggiore. 

47. St. Stephano Rotundo. 


48. Sta. Sophia, Constantinople. Plan. 

49. ,, ,, Interior. 

50. ,, ,, Exterior. 

51. St. Mark's, Venice. Plan. 

52. ,, ,, Interior. 

53. ,, ,, Exterior. 

54. ,, ,, Details of Caps. 



55. St. Michele, at Pavia. Plan. 

56. ,, ,, Section. 
57- >. >' View. 

58. Romanesque Doorway. 

59. Rib Arches. Compared. 

60. Pisa Cathedra], Baptistery, Leaning Tower. 

61. Pisa Cathedral. Interior. 



62. San Miniato, Florence. 

63. San Zenone. 

64. Monreale Cathedral. 

65. St. Stephens, at Caen. 

66. Romanesque Piers compared. 

67. Church of the Apostles, Cologne. 


6S. Anglo-Saxon Architecture from Deerhurst, Earl's Harton. 

69. Lincoln Catliedral. 1 

70. Ely Cathedral. .-Comparative Plans. 

7 1 . Peterboro' Cathedral. J 

72. Lincoln Cathedral. Interior and Exterior. 
7 j. Westminster Abbey. Plan. 

74. St. John's Chapel, London. 

75. Iffley Church. 

76. Norman Mouldings. Compared. 

77. King's College Museum. 

78. Salisbury Cathedral. Exterior, 

79. ,, ,, Interior. 

80. Lincoln Cathedral. Exterior. 

81. ,, ,, Interior. 

82. Early English (Thirteenth Century) Doorway. 

83. Comparison of Tracery. 

84. Comparison of Ornament. 

85. Comparison of Vaulting. 

86. Decorated (Fourteenth Century) Doorway. 

87. Decorated Piers. Compared. 

88. Perpendicular Piers. Compared. 

89. St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

90. Henry VII. 's Chajiel. Exterior. 

91. ,, ,, Interior. 

92. Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century) Doorway. 


93. Notre Dame, Paris. 

94. Salisbury Cathedral. I^l^"- Icoi^^p^^red 

95. Amiens Cathedral. Plan, j ^ 

96. Coutances Cathedral. 

97. Westminster Abbey. Section, "j 

98. Milan Cathedral. „ L-, , 
„„ 1, -Compared. 

99. liourges ,, "I 
100. .Amiens ,, ,, I 



iO£. Palais de Justice, Rouen. 

102. Amiens Cathedral. 

103. Antwerp Caihedrai. 

104. Town Hall, Bruges. 
105 Town Hall, Ghent. 

106. Ratisbon Cathedral. 

107. Milan Cathedral. 

108. I'he Doge's Palace. 

109. The Ca d'Oro Palace. 

no. I'lorence Cathedral and Campanile. 

111. Siena Cathedral. Plan. 

112. Burgos Cathedral. Plan. 

113. „ ,, Exterior. 

114. ,, ,, Interior. 

115. St. Juan de los Reyes, Toledo. 


Gothic Doorway. Plan of Jamb, jcompared. 

Renaissance Doorway. ,, >> J 


118. Riccardi Palace 

119. Palazzo Giraud. 

120. Farnese Palace. 

121. The Capitol, Rome. 

122. St. Peter's, Rome. Interior. 

123. ,, ,, ,, Exterior. 

124. St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Plan. \ 

125. St. Peter's ,, Rome. „ [compared. 

126. Pantheon, Pans. "I 

127. Cologne Cathedral. ,, j 

128. Palazzo Yendrammi. 

129. Palazzo Pesaro. 

130. S. Giorgio Maggiore. 

131. Sta. Maria della Salute. 

132. „ ,, ,, ,, Plan. 

133. Basilica of Vicenza. 


134. Chateau de Blois. 

135. Chateau de Chambord. 

136. Chateau de Bury. 

137. St. Eustache, Paris. 

138. Pantheon, Paris. 

139. ,, ,, .Section. 

xxli List of Illustrations in the Text. 


162. Wave pattern — Japanese porcelain 21S 

163. Wave pattern — Japanese lacquer 219 

164. Wave ornament 219 

165. Wave ornament 219 

166. Wave and spray pattern 220 

167. Decorative rendering of incoming wave — Japanese 221 

168. Shell ornament 222 

169. Seaweed ornament 222 

170. Heraldic mantling — part of a painted frieze — 

L.F.D 223 

171. Heraldic mantling — German Gothic wood- 

carving 224 

172. Inlaid peacock-feather ornament — by B. J. Talbert 226 

173. Coptic feather border — S.K.M 227 

174. Coptic feather diaper — S.K.M 227 

175- Persian peacock feather pattern — painted tiles, 

S.K.M 228 

1 76. Trophy panel — Renaissance 229 

177- Fran9ois I*^"" skull ornament — wood-carving, Foh- 

tainebleau 230 

178. Early Phoenician wreath 231 

179. Swag of fruit-bunches 233 

180. Egyptian sacred beetle 237 

181. Diaper of waves, clouds, and sacred birds .. .. 23S 

182. Cross of fleurs-de-lis — thirteenth century .. .. 238 

183. Assyrian sacred tree 239 

184. Assyrian sacred tree — B.C. 885-860 239 

185. Iris or fleur-de-lis ?— Seventeenth century Vene- 


tian velvet oa 

List of IllMstrations in the Text, xxi 


136. Circular bird (and flower) crest 181 

137. Circular bird crest i8i 

138. Ornamentalindicationof birds inflight .. .. 181 

139. Diaper of stories and chrysanthemum flowers 

combined 182 

140. Dragon-fly diaper — Japanese 183 

141. Diaper of conventional bats 184 

142. Bird diaper by the late Wm. Burgess, A.R.A. .. 185 

143. Repeating figure pattern 186 

144. Conventional peacock border — Indian embroidery 187 

145. Egyptian wing treatment — vultures 188 

146. Egyptian wing treatment — hawk in cloisonne' 

enamel 189 

147. Bat diaper — old Japanese 191 

148. Embroidered bat — Chinese ■ .. 194 

149. Pilaster by Signorelli—Orvieto 202 

150. Grotesque iron grille — German 204 

151. Wings reduced to ornament — -Italian wood-carving 209 

152. Ornamental dragon — Japanese 210 

153. Arctic American grotesquene — embroidered cloth 211 

154. Spring blossoms on the stream — Japanese .. .. 213 

155. Diaper of spiders' webs 214 

156. Diaper of flames 215 

157. Cloud and bat pattern 216 

158. Cloud pattern 216 

159. Wave pattern 216 

160. Water and water-lilies 217 

i6l. Wave pattern and water-fowl 2i8 

List of Illiistyatious in the Text, xxiii 


iS6. Egyptian symbols 240 

1 87. Gothic fleurs-de-lis — from old glass, Lincoln .. 241 

188. Heraldic badges — Sixteenth century, Mantua .. 242 

189. Symbolic eye — Egyptian 243 

190. Segment of Greek border of eyes — painted terra- 

cotta 243 

191. Symbolic border of seed-vessels— L.F.D 245 

192. Heraldic oak — Italian Renaissance 247 


B.M. — British Museum. 

S.K.M. — South Kensington Museum. 

L.F.D. —Lewis F. Day. 


t)THE Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to 
give in clear and brief form the characteristic features of the 
architecture of each people and country, but also to consider 
those influences which have contributed to the formation of 
each special style. 

They are of opinion that in published works upon the sub- 
ject, Architecture has often been too much isolated from its 
surroundings, and that the main points of the physical 
geography, social progress, and historical development of 
each country require to be understood by those who w-ould 
study and comprehend its particular style. 

In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and 
also the qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and 
analytical method has been adopted, so that by the contrast 
of qualities the differences maybe more easily grasped. P'or 
instance, the special character of Gothic architecture becomes 
manifest when put in comparison with the Classic and 
Renaissance styles ; and, furthermore, the shades of differ- 
ence in the local or national phases of each, can also be 
equally drawn out by a similar comparative treatment. 

The styles themselves are then analyzed and the parts 
contrasted ; the analysis being carried out on the basis of 
the essential parts which every building possesses. As this 
system pervades the whole book, either the influences, 
character, examples, or comparative features of each style, 
can be contrasted with those in any other style. This then 


is the scheme of the book, which has been divided into five 
sections in each period, as follows: 

1. Influences. 

i. Geographical. 

ii. Geological. 
iii. Climate, 
iv. Religion. 

V. Social and Political, 
vi. Historical. 

2. Architectural Character. 

3. Examples of Buildings. 

4. Comparative. 

A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. 

B. Walls, their construction and treatment. 

C. Openings, their character and shape. 

D. Roofs, their treatment and development. 

E. Columns, their position, structure and decoration. 

F. Mouldings, their form and decoration. 

G. Decoration, as applied in general to any building. 

5. Reference Books. 

Section i is divided into the six leading influences that 
may be expected to shape the architecture of any country 
or people, the first three being structural, the next two the 
civilizing forces, and the last containing those external 
historical events which may alter or vary the foregoing. 

Section 2 describes the character of the architecture, that 
is, its special quality, and the general effect produced by 
the buildings as a whole. 

Section 3 contains the examples, i.e. the chief buildings in 
each style, briefly named and described, being the corpus, 
which the preceding influences affect and from which the 
subsequent comparative analysis is deduced. 

Section 4 is this comparative analysis, in which every style 
of architecture is regarded as the solution of certain funda- 
mental problems, i.e. each building must have all or most 


of the parts A to G, and consequently there is both interest 
and instruction to be gained in learning and comparing 
how each style has solved these points of the problem. 
Section 5 gives authorities and more especially directs the 
reader who wishes to pursue the study of any style in 
further detail. 

In treating of the buildings themselves under section 3 
the authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, 
which are necessarily technical and intolerably dry, and diffi- 
cult to follow, even by those who have had the technical 
training, and have either the building or complete drawings of 
it before them. They have therefore provided the largest pos- 
sible number of illustrations, and have confined the text to 
brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of the special qualities and 
characteristics of the building referred to. 

For the illustrations, photographs of large size have been 
reduced and printed in Collotype by the Direct Photo 
Engraving Company, Limited, who have also executed the 
blocks from the line drawings of special plans, maps, and 
features made by the authors. 

It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students 
who require an outline of architectural history as part of 
their artistic and professional education, but also to the in- 
creasing number of art workers who are interested in archi- 
tecture in its relation to those accessory arts in which they 
are engaged. Lastly ; it is believed that a work in which 
architecture is treated as a result and record of civilization, 
will prove attractive to that increasing public which interests 
itself in artistic development. 

29, New Bridge Street, 
LuDGATE Circus, E.C. 

New Years Day, 1896. 

Note. — The publication of the book has been delayed for many months 
in consecjuence of want of time necessary to read and correct the final 






"Deal worthily with the History of Architecture and it is worthy to 
take its place with the History of Law and of Language." — Freeman. 

IN introducing this Comparative treatment of Historical 
Architecture, we propose to give a general outline sketch 
of the course which the art has taken up to the present time 
in Europe, also in those countries, such as Egypt and Assyria, 
which have influenced that development. 

In Architecture we should be led to include every building 
or structure raised by human hands. Architecture is here 
defined as construction with an artistic motive : the more 
the latter is developed, the greater is the value of the result. 

The first habitations of man were undoubtedly those that 
nature afforded, such as caves or grottoes, which demanded 
little labour on his part to convert into shelters against the fury 
of the elements, and attacks from his fellows or wild animals. 

As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature, he 
naturally began to build more commodious habitations for 
himself, and some form of temple for his god. 

To pass, however, at once into Historic times, we find 
that in Egypt a system of architecture prevailed which con- 
sisted of a massive construction of walls and columns, in 
which the column closely spaced, short, and massive, carried 
lintels, which in their turn supported the flat beamed roof. 
Assyrian architecture developed in general with the same 
constructive principle of a column supporting a beam, 



although the arch was known and used, and the influence 
of Egyptian and Assyrian architecture on the architecture 
of Greece is apparent in many directions. Grecian archi- 
tecture is considered by many to have had its origin in the 
wooden hut or cabin formed of posts set in the earth, and 
covered with transverse beams and rafters, and this was the 
type which was developed in the early Mycenian period into 
the. prodfli?i!/s of the Greek house. This timber architecture, 
copied in marble or stone, was naturally at first very simple 
and rude ; the influence of the material, however, was soon 
felt, when the permanence and value of stone aided in the 
growth of the art. It should be noted, however, that many 
writers hold that Greek architecture is developed from an 
early stone type. As civilization and technical skill, more- 
over, advanced, the qualities of refinement in detail and 
proportion were perceived, and the different orders of archi- 
tecture — Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian — came into existence. 
(By the word " order " we mean certain methods of pro- 
portioning and decorating a column, and the part it supports, 
/.(?., the entablature.) These " orders " are the characteristic 
features of Greek architecture, and the beauty and grace 
with which they were treated, and the artistic and mathe- 
matical skill with which they were constructed, illustrate 
the keen artistic temperament of the Greeks. 

Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans 
who, however, adopted their architecture, and in many 
cases employed Greek artists in the erection of their build- 
ings. While borrowing this trabeated architecture, they 
added the use of the arch, which they had probably already 
learnt to construct from the Etruscans, the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Central Italy. 

This dualism is a very important fact to remember, 
because, as we shall see, it eventually ended in the exclusion 
of the beam altogether, and in the employment of the arch 
alone, throughout the entire constructive system of the 
building. The column and arch were then used conjointly 
by the Romans for some time, good examples being the 
Colosseum at Rome (No. 36), and the Triumphal Arches 
(No. 38). In the numerous buildings which the Romans 
erected, we at once notice that the column has, in the 


generality of cases, become merely a decorative feature, the 
actual work of support being performed by the piers of the 
wall behind, connected together by semicircular arches. 

As time went on, however, such practical people as the 
Romans could not but discard a feature which was no longer 
utilitarian, so the column even as a decorative feature 
disappeared, and the arcuated system it had masked was 

Columns, when used, were now again constructive, as in 
many of the great basilicas, in which the semicircular arches 
spring directly from their capitals. As the Romans con- 
quered the whole of the then known world, that is to say, 
most of what is now known as Europe, so this feature of the 
semicircular arch was introduced in every part, by its use 
in the settlements which they founded. Roman architecture 
was prevalent in Europe in a more or less debased form up 
to the tenth century of our era, and is the basis on which 
European architecture is founded. The gradual breaking 
up of the Roman Empire, the formation of separate European 
states, and other causes which we shall enumerate separately, 
led to many variations on this semicircular arched style, 
both in construction and decoration. 

The transition commenced in the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth centuries, when the later Romanesque, so called as 
being derived from the Roman style, was in vogue. Con- 
structive necessity, aided largely by inventive genius led, in 
the latter part of the twelfth century, to the introduction of 
the pointed arch. 

The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the 
Gothic or pointed style, which prevailed throughout Europe 
during the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, 
when those glorious cathedrals and churches were erected, 
which form the most emphatic record of the religious feeling 
and character of the Middle Ages. 

We may broadly summarize past styles of architecture as 
being divided into two great types, each depending on a 
great constructive principle, and we may place any style 
yet devised under one of these divisions, which are : (i) 
the Classic, or the architecture of the beam, and (2) the 
Gothic, or the architecture of the arch. 


The early styles, including Greece, belong to the former. 
Roman architecture is a composite transition style, whose 
goal, if unchecked, would seem to have been the combina- 
tion of the round arch and dome that we see in the great 
examples of the Byzantine style. It was left to the Gothic 
style to formulate a complete system of arcuated construc- 
tion, the working out of which was marvellously alike in all 
countries. It was a style, moreover, in which a decorative 
system was closely welded to the constructive, both uniting 
to reflect a more intense expression of its age than had, 
perhaps, hitherto been achieved in previous architecture. 

The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century 
was a fresh factor in the history of architecture. The con- 
dition of Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a 
great change, the Gothic system, Avhether in architecture or 
in civilization regarded as a whole, may fairly be said to 
have culminated. Its latest works were tinged by the 
coming change, or showed signs of becoming stereotyped by 
the repetition of mechanical forms. 

The new force was the belief that old Rome had been 
wiser and more experienced than the then existing period, 
and the result was the earnest study of every Classic fragment, 
whether of art or literature, that had been preserved or 
could be recovered. For some three centuries this belief 
held good, till by the opening up of Greece to travel, the 
tradition was modified by the admission of Grecian remains 
to an equal or supreme place, beside or above those of 

This second phase had not, however, an equal success for 
divers reasons ; a reaction was at hand in favour of mediaeval 
ideals, whether in the church, art, or the State. 

A conscious effort was then made — the most earnestly in 
England — to modify the current that had been flowing 
since the year 1500. Some of the results of this attempt 
may be traced by the student wise enough to follow up the 
clues indicated in our concluding pages. In acquainting 
himself with the buildings given in those lists, he may feel 
that few of the diverse elements of our perplexed civilization, 
at the end of the nineteenth century, have failed to find 
some architectural expression. 


"Those v\-orks where man has rivalled nature most, 

Those Pyramids, that fear no more decay 

Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast, 

Or winds on mountain steeps, and like endurance boast." 


i. Geographical. — The civilization of every country has 
been, as we hope to be able to show, largely determined by 
its geographical conditions. The characteristic features of 
the land in which any race dwells shapes their mode of life 
and thus influences their intellectual culture. 

On referring to the map (No. i) we find that Egypt consists 
of a sandy desert with a strip of very fertile country on the 
banks of the Nile. Egypt was the only nation of the 
ancient world which had at once easy access to the Northern 
Sea, or Mediterranean, as well as to the Eastern, or 
Arabian sea ; for by way of the Red Sea, Egypt always 
commanded an access to both these highways. The con- 
sequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own productions 
and inlets for those of foreign nations. The possession of 
the Nile, moreover, was of immense advantage, not only on 
account of its value as a trade route, and as a means of 
communication, but also because its waters were the 
fertilizing agents that made desert sands into fruitful fields. 
It was on the banks of this classic river that the ancient 
cities of the Egyptians were naturally placed ; here, therefore, 
are found the chief remains of the Tombs, Temples, and 
Pyramids which have come down to us. 

ii. Geological.— In this section throughout the volume 
we shall endeavour to trace that influence on the architecture 
of each country which the materials at hand had in the 


development of their different styles. The natural produc- 
tions of a country, we shall find, whether wood, brick, or 
stone, determine to a large extent its style of art. 

In Egypt under this heading we should notice the abun- 
dance of limestone that existed in the north, of sandstone 

I. Map of Egypt. 

in the central region, and of granite in the south. The 
latter is principally found near Assouan (Syene), and is 
called Syenite. This hard and lasting building material 
influenced largely the architecture of the country, and to its 
durable qualities is due the fact that we have so many 
remains. Bricks were also employed, but were generally 


faced with some harder material. We may also note the 
absence of wood of a kind suitable for building, for we find 
only small forests of palm and acacia existed. 

iii. Climate. — The climate is equable and of even tem- 
perature, snow and frost are wholly unknown, while storm, fog, 
and even rain are rare, which accounts to a large extent for 
the good preservation of the temples. The climate was thus 
of importance in developing the qualities of the architecture, 
admitting of simplicity of construction, for though it de- 
manded some protection against heat there was no neces- 
sity to provide against inclement weather. Egypt has been A 
said to have but two seasons, spring and summer. '' 

iv. Religion. — A close connection between religion 
and architecture is everywhere manifest at this epoch. The 
priesthood was powerful, possessed of almost unlimited 
authority, and equipped with all the learning of the age. 
The religious rites were traditional, unchangeable, and mys- 
terious. A tinge of mystery is one of the great characteristics 
of the Egyptian architecture as well in its tombs as in its 
temples. The Egyptians attained to a very high degree 
of learning in astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy ; the 
remains of their literature have been preserved to us in the 
papyri, or MSS. written on paper made from the pith of the 
papyrus. In theory the religion was monotheistic, but in 1 
practice it became polytheistic, a multiplicity of gods was '^ 
created by personifying natural phenomena, such as the W 
sun, moon, stars, etc., as well as the brute creation. The 
Egyptians were strong believers in a future state ; hence 
their care in the preservation of their dead, and the erection 
of such everlasting monuments as the Pyramids. Herodotus 
informs us that the dwelling-house was looked upon by 
them as a mere temporary lodging, the tomb being the 
permanent abode. 

" What availed thee thy other buildings ? 
Of thy tomb alone thou art sure. 
On the earth thou hast nought beside ; 
Nought of thee else is remaining." 

V. Social and Political. — Under this heading we find 
that a dense population was employed on public works, for 
which they probably received no other pay but their food ; | 


the state of cheap labour thus produced was eminentlyfavour- 
able to the execution of great public works. In addition there 
existed a centralized despotic government, which perhaps 
more than any other form favours the execution of monu- 
mental works. It is assumed by some that the spare time 
which occurs during the annual floods enabled the population 
to be employed on these state buildings. It is also possible 
that the transport of stone required for the Pyramids, etc., 
was effected by means of rafts floated down at this season. 
During the reign of Rameses II. the captives and foreigners, 
who had largely increased, were also put to enforced labour 
upon the public works, as in the first chapter of the book 
of Exodus we learn how the natives viewed wnth alarm the 
growing numbers and power of these strangers. 

vi. Historical. — Egyptian civilization is the most ancient 
of any of which we have a clear knowledge ; its history 
has come down to us from Holy Scripture and from Greek 
and Roman authors, but more particularly from the 
Egyptian buildings, by which it can be traced as far 
back as 4,000 years B.C. The Pyramids are thought to 
be a thousand years older than any building which has 
yet been discovered in Western Asia, the subject of our 
next division. The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title 
" Peraa " = " great house ") have been arranged in thirty 
dynasties, extending down to B.C. 340. These have been 
based on the list of Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived 
B.C. 300, and compiled a history of Egypt in Greek. The 
nineteenth dynasty, founded by Rameses I. (b.c. 1400-1366), 
may be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian art. 
The evidence of his greatness, and that of his grandson, 
Rameses II. (b.c. 1333-1300), as builders, is to be seen 
among the Temples of Thebes and elsewhere. The twenty- 
sixth dynasty takes us to the time when the country was 
conquered by the Persians in B.C. 527, from whom it was 
wrested by the great Grecian general, Alexander the Great, 
in B.C. 332. On Alexander's death and the division of his 
empire Egypt passed to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's 
generals, who founded a dynasty that ruled from B.C. 323 
to B.C. 31. After the wars which ended in the death of 
Cleopatra, Egypt passed, as did the whole of the then 


known world, into the hands of the conquering Romans, 
and became a Roman y^rovince. On the spread of Maho- 
metanism, in a.d. 638, Egypt was conquered by the Arabs, 
who left important monuments. In a.d. 15 17 it became a 
part of the Turkish dominions. 


The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture 
are the Pyramids (or royal tombs of the kings) and the 
temples. Contrast in this respect Egypt with Assyria, 
where the palaces of the kings are the chief remains. The 
Egyptian wall-paintings and sculptures, jewellery, bronze 
implements and utensils, which have been unearthed from 
their temples or tombs, show that the race had attained to a 
high degree in art. As regards their architecture, the im- 
pression which forms itself in the mind of the spectator is 
that here was building for eternity ; for all the remains have 
a character of immense solidity, and, as a general rule, of 
grand uniformity. 

The Pyramids are the most extravagant of all ancient 
buildings in many ways. The relative return in impressive- 
ness and the higher beauties of the art is comparatively 
small when compared with the amount of labour, expense, 
and material used in their erection. It must be borne in 
mind that the Pyramids were built for a special purpose. 
If the pyramid had been left at half its height, it would 
have remained a national observatory, but as it was closed 
over, its object was astrological. It was in the lifetime of 
the founder intended to furnish an accurate horoscope, and 
on his death to form a secure tomb. 

The Architectural Character of the temples is striking 
and characteristic. The buildings decrease in height from 
front to back, and form a disconnected collection of various 
sized buildings, often built at different times, and thus form 
a direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek 
temple, which is all comprised within one "order" of 
columns, and which is distinctly both in appearance and 
reality one building. 


The character of the tombs consists ira the planning of 
their mysterious chambers and corridors, which, covered 
with paintings and hieroglyphics, produce an effect of gloom 
and solemnity on the spectator. 



(No. 2), whose date is unknown, is situated near the 
great pyramids, and is a natural rock cut to resemble a 
Sphinx, with rough masonry added in parts. An Egyptian 
Sphinx had the head of a king, a hawk, a ram, or a woman, 
on the body of a lion. The dimensions of the Great Sphinx 
are as follows : it is 65 feet high, the face is 13 feet 6 inches 
wide, the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long, the body 188 feet 
long. The original builders are unknown ; it was excavated 
in 1 8 16 by Captain Cariglia, who found a temple between 
the paws. 


(or Royal Tombs) at Gizeh, near Cairo, were all erected 
during the fourth dynasty (b.c. 3766P-3566), and are the 
next earliest remains of Egyptian architecture. 

The first or Great Pyramid (Nos. 2 and 3) was erected 
by Cheops (b.c. 3733-370°)- 

The second Pyramid was erected by Cephron (b.c. 

The third Pyramid by Mycerinos (b.c. 3633-3600). 

They were built during their lifetime by these kings of 
the fourth dynasty as their tombs. The governing idea was 
to secure immortality for the king by the preservation of 
his mummy. 

A large number of pyramids have been discovered, but 
the most remarkable are those at Gizeh, near Cairo. The 
principal one is that by Cheops, as mentioned above. 
Shortly, it is square on plan, 760 feet each way, its area 
being 13 acres, i.e., twice the extent of St. Peter's, Rome, or 
equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields, in London. Each 



of the faces of the pyramid is an equilateral triangle laid 
sloping, and meeting in a point. The height is 484 feet. 
The angle which the sides make with the ground is 51 
degrees 51 minutes. The entrance is on the north side, 
and the sides face directly north, south, east, and west, as in 
all the pyramids. The entrance (No. 3) is 47 feet 6 inches 
above the base ; it first slopes downwards, and afterwards 

3. Section of Great Pyramid at Gizeh, showing King's 
AND Queen's Chambers and Passages. 

reascends towards the heart of the pyramid, where the 
king's chamber is situated. The upper part is elaborately 
constructed with stones one above the other, and the 
entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a port- 
cullis, fitting into a rebate or recess, and weighing from 50 
to 60 tons. In this chamber was placed the sarcophagus of 
the king, containing his embalmed body, and two air 
channels led to the outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. 
There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid, one 


from a passage leading off that to the king's chamber, and 
one below the ground. 

The face of the Pyramid is now stepped in tiers of 4 feet 
built in limestone, but originally these were cased in to a 
sloping face with granite from Syene. 


Beyond these royal tombs are others for private indi- 
viduals, which take the form of 

a. Truncated pyramids of the earlier period. 

b. The rock-cut tombs in later times (eighteenth and nine- 

teenth dynasties). 

In the latter there was one entrance unconcealed, 
the body being hidden in a well of great depth, which had 
a concealed entrance in the thickness of the wall. 

Note. — The value of these from an historical point of 
view is very important, because they are decorated 
with representations of the person as he lived, executed 
in stucco and coloured. Inscriptions enable us to fix 
the exact dates. 

The Tomb of Beni Hassan (No. 4) in Central Egypt 
is a well-known example of the rock-cut tombs. It was 
erected during the twelfth dynasty (b. c. 2466-2233), a 
period which was particularly remarkable for the progress of 
the arts of peace. 

The great entrance with columns is generally considered 
to be from a wooden origin, and to be a prototype of the 
Greek Doric column. 

The columns are slightly fluted and have an entasis, 
while the projecting roof has false stone beams, carved to 
imitate wooden ones. 

The Tomb of Manepthah at Thebes (b.c. 1300-1266) 
is one of the most important, consisting of chambers and 
corridors splendidly decorated, descending in a sloping 
direction into the mountain, and ending in a circular pit 
which leads to the mummy chamber. 



• ^ 


The purposes for which they were used and their com- 
ponent parts are important. 

They are not like our churches, which are places of wor- 
ship for the people, nor yet like Greek temples, although in 
this latter case the worshippers stood out- 
side ; but they were sanctuaries where only 
the king and priests penetrated. 

Mysteries and processions formed a great 
part of the religious services. 

T!ie student is here referred to Mr. 
Lockyer's theories as to the orientation of 
temples with regard to the particular stars. 

The earliest temples consisted of one 
small chamber with statue and altar (ex. at 
Elephantine), approached by a flight of 
steps, and in this form are generally con- 
sidered to be the prototypes of the Greek 
temples. These smaller temples were after- 
wards enlarged by adding chambers for the 
priests, and courts, colonnades, and halls, 
all within a garden or court surrounded 
by a high wall. 

In order that the student may under- 
stand the general distribution of the parts 
of an Egyptian temple, a plan is here 
given of the small south temple of Karnac 
(No. 5), on the eastern bank of the Nile, ^"^ 

which may be taken as a fair example of - small South 
the plan of an Egyptian temple. Temple ok 

The entrance to the temple was between Karnac 
" pylons," or massive sloping towers, on 
each side of the gateway (No. 7). In front of the entrance 
were sometimes placed obelisks, and again in front of 
these an avenue of sphinxes, forming a splendid approach 
to the temple. This entrance gave access to the large 
outer courtyard, which being open to the sky in the centre, 
and therefore called hypaethral (from two Greek words, 
meaning "under the air"), was surrounded by a double 




colonnade on three sides, and led up to the hypostyle 
hall, in which the light was admitted by mearis of a 
clerestory above, formed by the different height of the 
columns (section bb. No. 6). " The mass of th»«tentral 
piers, illumined by a flood of light from the cferestory, 
and the smaller pillars of the wings gradually fading into 
obscurity, are so arranged and lighted as to give an idea 
of infinite space. Moreover, the beauty and massiveness 
of the forms, and the brilliancy of their coloured decora- 
tions, all combine to stamp such halls as the greatest of 
man's architectural works " (Fergusson). In later times the 

Section B.B. 

. ? ■p f y 


6. Small South Temple of Karnac. 

hall was lighted (No. 8) over low screen walls placed between 
the columns. Beyond this is the cell, surrounded by a pass- 
age, and at the rear is a smaller hall. These last chambers 
must have all been dark or imperfectly lighted. 

The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was 
surrounded by a tall blank wall, as high as the buildings 

The gateway in this example, at the commencement of the 
avenue of sphinxes, was erected by the Ptolemys, and, like 
many Egyptian buildings, differs in axis of plan from the 
direction of the main building. 

(a.) At Thebes, the capital of Egypt during the 
eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties (b.c. i 700-1 200), 


are some of the most important remains, occupying an 
area 2^ miles north to south, and 3^ miles east to 

Among these are : 

On the Eastern bank, the Temples at Karnac and 

On the Western bank, the Temple of Medinet- 
Habou and the Rhamession (b.c. 1500). 

The Temple at Karnac is the grandest, extending 
over an area 1200 feet in length by 360 feet in 
width, and is connected with the Temple at Luxor 
by an avenue of sphinxes. 

The general disposition of plan follows what has already 
been described, but we should note in particular the 
grand hypostyle hall of 130 columns, and which 
covers the same area as Notre Dame at Paris. The 
central avenue is 85 feet high, as compared to 
147 feet at Amiens, and the columns are 12 feet in 
diameter. The smaller columns on either side are 
42 feet in height and 9 feet in diameter. 

Note this clerestory over the central columns, an early 
form of lighting more fully developed in the Gothic 

The central columns have lotus capitals in blossom to 
admit the light more easily ; the side columns have 
lotus-bulb capitals, on which the light would fall 
(No. 11). 

{b.) During the Greek and Roman period many 
temples were erected. Of these the temple at Edfou 
(B.C. 180-160) (No. 8) is one of the most important. 


are monumental pillars, employed as an appendix to a 
temple. • All were monoliths, i.e., in one stone, square 
on plan, and tapering gently, with a pyramidal summit. 
The height was usually about nine to ten diameters, the 
four faces were slightly rounded, and cut with hieroglyphics. 
The capping was of metal, for the groove into which it was 
.fitted is visible in some cases. 


In Egypt obelisks were placed in pairs in front of the 
fa9ade of the temple. The quarrying and transport of such 
a mass of stone without the power of a steam-engine was 
an engineering feat of considerable skill. 

Many obelisks were removed to Rome by the emperors, 
and at least twelve are in that city. That in the centre of 
the Piazza of St. John Lateran is the largest in existence, 
and is of red granite from Syene. (It is 104 feet high, or 
with the pedestal 153 feet, weighs about 600 tons, is 9 feet 
square at the base, and 6 feet 2 inches square at the top.) 

Example in England : the obelisk on the Thames 
Embankment (No. 9), 68 feet 6 inches high, 8 feet square 
at the base, and weighs 180 tons. 


All these have disappeared, being only built of sun-dried 
bricks. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures 
which have come down to us, from which they appear to 
have had one, two, or three storeys. 

In the absence of any authentic remains, an illustration 
of the Egyptian House is given (No. 10), conjecturally 
restored, and erected at the Paris Exhibition, 1889, by 
M. Charles Garnier. The design was founded on an ancient 
painting, and had a garden in front, laid out in a formal 
style, with fish-ponds. The house was divided by a 
corridor in the centre, giving access to the rooms. The 
staircase at the back led to a verandah, and also to a flat 
roof, extending the whole length of the building. The 
upper part of the house was painted a bright yellow, and 
the long external wooden columns blue ; in effect the whole 
building was full of colour. 


A. Plans of the temples have already been slightly 
compared with the Greek examples (page 13), and we have 
noticed that they were especially planned for inside effect. 
The hypostyle hall crowded with pillars, seemingly un- 


limited in size, and mysteriously illuminated from above, IIIajUJ 
realized the grandest conceptions of Egyptian planning 
(No. 5). Externally we have the massive pylons to form 
their chief facade, contrasted by the slender obelisks which 
usually stood in front of them, while the approach was 
through an impressive avenue of innumerable sphinxes. 

The erection of these temples was progressing during 
many centuries by means of continual additions ; in this 
respect they resemble our own English cathedrals ; as also 
in their disregard for symmetry, in the planning of one part 
in relation to another, as may be seen in many of the later 
temples erected under the Ptolemys, the little temple on the 
island of Philas being a special instance. The walls, the 
pylons, and other features are placed on different axes, free 
from any pretence of regularity. The freedom and pic- 
turesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. 

r,. Walls were immensely thick ; in the more impor- | 
tant buildings they were of granite, in the less important of I 
brick faced with granite. ' 

The face of the temple walls slopes inward towards the 
top, which gives it a massive appearance. VioUet-le-Duc 
traces this batter to the employment of mud for the walls of 
early buildings (No. 7). No columns, the especial feature 
of Greek work, appear on the outside ; there is merely a 
massive blank wall crowned with a characteristic cornice, 
consisting of a large hollow and roll moulding. For the ' 
purposes of decoration, the walls, even when of granite, '■ 
were generally covered with a fine plaster, in which were 
executed low reliefs, treated with bright colour (No. 7). 
Simplicity, solidity, and grandeur, qualities obtained by 
broad masses of unbroken walling, are the chief charac- 
teristics of the style. 

c. Openings were all square-headed and covered with 
massive lintels. It is essentially a trabeated style, and the 
arch does not appear to have been used. Window open- 
ings are seldom found in temples, light being admitted 
by the clerestories in the earlier examples at Thebes, or 
over the low dwarf walls between the columns, as at Luxor 
or Philae (Nos. 6 and 8). 

D. Roofs are flat, and composed entirely of massive 




blocks of stone laid on to the columns. In the rock-cut 
temples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form, 
and at the tomb of Beni-Hassan the roofing is also made to 
represent timber construction. 

E. Columns. The papyrus, a tall, smooth reed, and 
the lotus, a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty, offered 
many suggestions ; the stalks were made to represent the 
column, and at intervals to appear to be tied by bands (No. 
ii). The capitals, which are derived from the lotus plant, 
are as follows : 

Papyrus Plant. Egyptian Cap. Pillar at Beni- 

Hassan, from 
Lotus Plant. 

II. Diagram showing Origin of Egyptian Column, from 
Lotus and Papyrus Plants. 

(a.) The lotus bud (conventionalized), and tied round 
by stalks (No. ii). 

(/;.) The fully-grown lotus flower, which formed a bell- 
shaped capital, and was ornamented with colour 
decoration or sculptured (No. ii). 

(<r.) The " palm " capital, the main outline of the palms 
being painted. (No. 8.) 

(il) The Isis capital, as at Denderah, where the capitals 
were made up of the heads of the goddess Isis on 
which rested a model of a pylon. 


F. Mouldings are few in number, viz., the hollow and 
bead generally used in conjunction, but the bead is also 
used by itself. The two together invariably crowned the 
upper part of the pylons. (Nos. 7 and 10.) 

G. Decoration is an important feature in the style. 
The Egyptians were masters in the use of colour, chiefly 
using the primaries — blue, red, and yellow. The prepara- 
tion of the surface for colour was as follows : The wall was 
chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster 
or cement ; after which a coloured wash was put over 
the whole. The figures or hieroglyphics were then drawn 
on with a red line by an artist, being corrected with a 
black line by the chief artist ; the sculptor next incised 
the outline, rounding slightly the inclosed form towards its 
boundaries. The whole was then ready for the painter, 
who executed his work in the strong hues of the primary 
colours. (See the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace.) 
The hieroglyphics were often, however, incised direct on the 
granite and then coloured, as may be seen on the sculptures 
at the British Museum. These hieroglyphics were instruc- 
tive as well as decorative, and it is from them that we learn 
most of what we know of Egyptian history. 

We may note in passing the great power the Egyptians 
possessed of conventionalizing, i.e., when natural objects, 
such as the lotus plant, the palm, and others, were copied 
or used as the motif for a design, they were treated by 
the artists in a way suitable to the material in which they 
were working. The distinguishing, or essential, features of 
the natural object, or its class, thus passed by a process of 
idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation. 


Numerous works of the Egyptian Exploration Fund. 
Perrot and Chipiez, " History of Art in Egypt." 
"Ten Years Digging in Egypt," by Prof. Flinders Petrie. 
" Egyptian Decorative Art," by Prof. Flinders Petrie. 
"Ancient Egypt," by Prof. George Rawlinson, M.A., 
is a very interesting account of the Egyptians. 
Prof. Maspero, " Dawn of Civilization." 


"An Egyptian Princess," by Georg Ebers. (Historical 

Visit the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace ; also at the 
British Museum study the various kinds of capitals. The 
Museum should be visited thoroughly, as it contains a most 
complete collection of Egyptian antiquities, which will give 
the student a more thorough knowledge of the style than 
the reading of many books, and in an infinitely shorter space 
of time. 



" Babylon, 
Learned and wise, hath perished utterly, 
Xor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh 
That would lament her." — Wordsworth. 


i. Geographical. — On referring to the map (No. 12) it 
will be seen that the buildings, which we propose to discuss 
very shortly under this head, are situated in the valley of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, a country which may be styled the 
cradle and tomb of nations and empires. The plain of 
Mesopotamia, once the seat of a high civilization was irri- 
gated from the Euphrates and Tigris, by innumerable 
canals, and was highly cultivated, supporting a huge popula- 
tion round Nineveh and Babylon. Now it has vegetation 
solely in the wet season. 

The earliest period of which we have knowledge, commences 
at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country. In 
this respect we can contrast with the history of Egypt, the 
Pyramids and earlief~^work being at Cairo, towards the 
mouth of the Nile, and the later work at Philje, far inland. 
In Western Asiatic architecture the march of civilization 
spreads northwards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to 
Nineveh, while in Egyptian architecture it spread south- 
ward towards Edfou and Philae, but in both cases it de- 
velops from the sea inland. 

ii. Geological. — Thewhole district of Chald^a or Lower 
jMesopotamia is alluvial, being formed of the thick mud or 
clay deposited by the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. 




This soil, containing no stone nor bearing any trees, can be 
made into bricks, which thus became the building material. 
In consequence of expense, kiln-dried bricks were only used 




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12. Map of Babylonian and Assyrian Empires. 

for the facing, the general body of the walls being constructed 
of the ordinary sun-dried bricks. 

However, bricks seem to have been glazed or vitrified, 
and used in different colours as a facing. As a cement- 
ing material, bitumen or pitch, seems to have been used, 
applied in a heated state. It was obtained from bitumen 


springs found in the district, as at Is, on the Euphrates. 
Mortar, made of calcareous earth, was used in the latest 

In Assyria, where stone was not scarce, the walls were 
also faced, on the inside and out, with alabaster or lime- 
stone slabs, on which were engraved the bas-reliefs or 
inscriptions, which are so important from an historical point 
of view. 

iii. Climate. — The unhealthy exhalations from the vast 
swamps in Chaldoea, and the swarms of aggressive and 
venomous insects which infest the entire region during the 
long summer, rendered elevated positions for the towns and 
palaces not only desirable, but almost essential. Moreover, 
during the rainy season torrents fall for weeks at a time. 

iv. Religion. — The people were worshippers of the 
heavenly bodies, and of the powers of nature, such as the 
wind, thunder, the sun and the moon, etc. The number 
of omen tablets which have survived bear witness to their 
extreme superstition. 

Religion was not favourable to constructive art among the 
Persians. They worshipped Ormuzd as god of light and 
good, under the symbol of fire, as opposed to Ahriman, the 
god of darkness, and promoter of evil. They had conse- 
quently no images, and they had also no temples, because 
sacrifices were conducted in the open air. The essential 
element was therefore wanting for the rise and development 
of constructive art. In later times, Egypt and the Greek 
colonies of Asia IVIinor being subject to the Persians, 
Egyptian and Grecian artists were employed by the Persian 

V. Social and Political. — -From what we know of their 
history, we judge that the Assyrians were a sturdy, warlike, 
and cruel people. 

In their battles, the conquering monarchs took thousands 
of prisoners, and these were employed in raising the enormous 
mounds mentioned hereafter. It has been calculated by 
Rawlinson, that the great mound of Koyunjik — which 
represents the palaces of Nineveh itself — would require the 
united exertions of 10,000 men for twelve years to raise 
the mound only, after which the palace would have to be 


built. Their sculptures in alabaster exhibit considerable 
technical skill and refinement, while the repousse pattern 
work on bronze bowls, shields, and gate fittings is also 

The cuneiform inscriptions consist of groups of strokes 
in the form of wedges, placed upright and horizontally, 
hence the name. These characters were impressed on clay- 
tablets or cylinders, while still moist, with a triangular ended 
instrument of wood, bone, or metal. Libraries of these 
strange MSS.' were formed on a large scale, and by their 
translation our knowledge has been acquired. 

vi. Historical. — From the study of Assyrian history 
we can glean certain facts which considerably assist us in 
forming our divisions of the periods. The earliest Baby- 
lonian king mentioned in the cuneiform, or arrow-headed, 
inscriptions was Eannadu, who reigned B.C. 4500. The 
empire thus founded gradually extended its dominion to 
the north, following the course of the great river Tigris. 
In B.C. 1700 Assyria, the northern part of the early Baby- 
lonian empire, asserted her independence and became the 
great ])Ower of Western Asia. 

Of the Assyrian kings, among the more celebrated was 
Sargon (b.c. 722-705), who erected the great ])alace at 
Khorsabad. This Sargon was the first Assyrian king who 
came in contact with the Egyptian army, then in alliance 
with the Philistines, a combination which, however, he 
defeated. The Assyrians conquered and occupied Egypt 
in B.C. 672, sacking the ancient city of Thebes in B.C. 
666. Egypt, however, finally shook herself free from the 
Assyrian yoke. The destruction of Nineveh took place 
in B.C. 609, and the great Assyrian kingdom was divided 
among its conquerors, Assyria being handed over to the 
Medes. Babylon then took the leading place until it was 
finally conquered by the Persian general Cyrus in B.C. 539, 
from which date it remained under the rule of the Persians 
until the time of Alexander the Great about B.C. 300, when 
it became a possession of the Greeks. About a thousand 
years after Alexander's invasion and short-lived conquest, 
the Arabs overran the country and settled there — Bagdad 
forming a new capital of great magnificence. A few 


hundred years after, the Turks, a barbarous people pour- 
ing in from the east, settled in the country, which is at the 
present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule. 


The appearance of the monuments must be entirely left 
to the imagination : one can only guess at the effect of the 
towering masses of the palaces, planted on the great mounds, 
and approached from the plains by broad stairways. The 
colossal winged bulls of the portal led to an audience- 
chamber paved with carved slabs of alabaster. Here a dado, 
twelve feet high, of sculptured slabs, of a soft grey colour, 
was surmounted by a wall lining of glazed and brightly 
coloured brickwork, wrought in friezes of men and animals ; 
over all was probably a beamed roof of cedar, through which 
small openings gave a sufficient illumination. 



can be divided into three tolerably distinct periods. Of 
these the first is the Babylonian period or Chaldsean 
period (b.c. 2234-1520), which is essentially a temple- 
building epoch. 


Principal remains : 

Temple of Birs Nimroud near Babylon. 
Temple at Khorsabad. 

According to Colonel Rawlinson's investigations the 
temple of Birs-Nimroud was dedicated to the seven heavenly 

In Chaldaea every city had its temple, and attached was 
the "ziggurat" (meaning holy mountain), which was a temple 
observatory, with the temple on the top platform, from 
which observations could be made. 


These temples appear to have been constructed in 
receding terraces, several storeys in height, and each of a 
different coloured brick; access to these storeys was obtained 
by stairs. The angles of these temples were orientated, in 
contrast to the Egyptian pyramids, whose faces were so 
placed. A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. 

Our readers will remember the attempts of the Babylonians 
to build a tower which should "reach to heaven" (Gen. xi. 
4), and it is a fact worth noting that both here and in the 
pyramids of Egypt, countries both remarkable for their dulness 
and sameness of aspect, man should have attempted his 
highest flights of audacity in the way of artificial elevations. 


(B.C. 1290 to the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus in B.C. 
538) comprised the second period. This period is essentially 
a palace-building epoch. 

Principal remains : 
At Nimroud. 

At Nineveh (or Koyunjik). 
At Khorsabad. 

We find that the same principle of raising the buildings 
on terraces, from 20 to 50 feet high, is followed in the 
designing of these palaces as we found in the case of the 
previous temples. Each terrace gradually decreased in area 
from the one below it, and was probably faced with glazed 
tiles of different colours. 

The excavations at Nineveh (or Koyunjik) tell us prac- 
tically all we know of this period. Many of the sculptures 
which lined the walls are at the British Museum, and should 
be visited. 

The remains at Nimroud and Khorsabad, near the 
ancient city of Nineveh, were raised on a mound or terrace 
made of bricks, from 30 to 50 feet high, on which plat- 
form was placed the structure. The palaces were faced 
externally and internally with stone. In the interior, above 
a sculptured dado of alabaster about 8 feet high, which 
seems to have been sometimes treated with colour, the walls 
were faced with hard-baked bricks of some size, painted and 


glazed in the fire, and forming a continuous frieze. Many 
conjectural restorations have been made by various writers. 

The great entrance portals to the palace were flanked 
by great human-headed bulls, 19 feet in height. Examples 
of these are now preserved in the British Museum. These 
man-bulls have a mystical meaning ; they were reproductions 
of the supposed creatures that guarded the sun-gates of the 
East and West, to which they were dedicated. 

From the bas-reliefs we are able to say that the chambers, 
which were narrow in proportion to their length, were 
lighted by windows, probably high up in the walls. The 
roof was probably constructed on solid wooden beams, 
though others have supposed barrel vaults to have been 
in use. 

The Palace of Gudaea (b.c. 2800), explored by one of 
the French expeditions, is typical. Its plan is simple, the 
entrance being by a broad gateway leading into a central 
quadrangle, the gateway being flanked by curious guard- 
rooms, penetrating far into the wall, and evidently intended 
as shelters from the hot weather. Round this quadrangle 
were grouped the principal buildings, on one side offices and 
store-rooms, on the other the royal apartments, divided into 
two portions, the public rooms, and the women's quarters. 
This type of plan obtains in all oriental palaces up to the 
present day. 


commences with Cyrus, B.C. 538, and ends with Alexander, 
B.C. 333. 

Remains : 

At Susa, Persepolis, and Passagardae, consisting of 
palaces, tombs, and temples. 

The Persians were a hardy race from the mountainous 
district north of the Persian Gulf. Having conquered the 
Assyrians under Cyrus, B.C. 538, and having no architecture 
of their own, they proceeded to copy and adopt that of the 
conquered Assyrians, as the Romans in after times assi- 
milated that of the Greeks. 

In the neighbourhood of Susa and PersepoHs, the new 


cities which they built, good stone was, however, to be 
found, and, as a consequence, many details, which are 
wanting in the earlier periods, have come down to us. For 
instance, in Assyria the walls remain, but the columns, 
being of wood, have disappeared. 

In Persia the columns and doorways, which were of 
marble, remain, but the walls are in many cases destroyed, 
being of thinner construction, and the naked brick exposed. 

At Persepolis the customary platform, already men- 
tioned as a part of the palaces, is cut out of the solid rock, 
and not built up of bricks, as in the earlier Assyrian exam- 
ples. This platform is approached by a staircase of black 
marble, each step rising about four inches. 

The principal remains of this vast palace are : 
The Propylsea by Xerxes. 

The columns of the Great Hall, 67 feet high, by Xerxes, 
and other portions (No. 13). 

The rock-cut Tomb of Darius is an imperishable copy 
of the fagade of this palace (see Texier's great work), in 
which are found the " double-bull " capitals supporting the 
cornice cut out of the solid rock. The evidence of these 
columns goes to show that they were copied from wooden 
forms of the eadier Assyrian capitals, the wooden beam 
supporting the roof resting on the back of the bulls. The 
smaller columns have voluted capitals, fluted shafts, and 
moulded bases (No. 13). 

At Susa some splendid decorations in coloured brick, 
were lately excavated, and are now in the Louvre at Paris. 



A. Plan. — It should be noticed that the temples of 
the early period and the palaces of the later period are all 
raised on a terrace some 30 feet to 50 feet in height, 
and that the buildings on this terrace are grouped round a 
quadrangle. In the planning of the temples we should note 
that, whereas the sides of the Egyptian temples face the 
cardinal points, the angles of the Assyrian temples face 
these points. The Egyptian temples were designed for 

r3. Columns from Great Hall of Xerxes, Persepolis. 


internal effect, while the Assyrian palaces were designed 
so as to be effectiv'e internally and externally, being raised 
on the platforms mentioned above. 

B. Walls. — The i\ssyrians in the early period only used 
stone as a facing to their brick walls, contrasting with the 
solid marble work of the Greeks, and with the constructive 
use of stone and granite by the Egyptians. 

Most of what we know of the life of the Assyrians is 
obtained from the facing slabs of alabaster with which they 
clothed their brick walls. 

c. Openings. — The lighting to the temples is con- 
jectural, but it appears, very probably, to have been effected 
by means of a " clerestory," somewhat similar to that in use 
in the Egyptian temples. 

The use of the arch, both circular and pointed, was 
practised by the Assyrians, as is proved by the discoveries 
of Sir Henry Layard at Nimroud, and at Khorsabad, in the 
city gateways, discovered by M. Place. We find semi- 
circular arches springing from the backs of winged bulls 
with human heads, which kept watch in pairs at each of the 

D. Roofs. — The roofing appears to have been probably 
effected by means of timber beams thrown from one column 
to the next, and resting on the backs of the " double-bull " 
capitals. Some restorers show the halls of the palaces as 
vaulted with brick tunnel vaults. 

E. Columns. — It is assumed by Mr. Fergusson that their 
columns were primarily of wood, stone columns being intro- 
duced in the later period, by the Persians, in the buildings at 
Persepolis, which they erected after their return from Egypt. 

These columns had characteristic " double-bull " capitals 
(No. 13), and the Ionic scroll is noticeable in some 
examples. The columns therefore did not need to be so 
massive as in Egyptian architecture, where stone roofs had 
to be supported. The stone columns of the later period 
were probably founded on the timber posts of the earlier 

F. Mouldings. — As in the case of Egypt, in West Asia 
the use of mouldings does not appear to have been advanced 
to any great extent. In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured 


slabs and coloured surfaces took their place. At Persepolis 
the bead and hollow may be noticed in the columns, while 
the volutes of the capital are treated with plain sinkings. 

G. Decoration. — It is from the decorative treatment of 
Assyrian architecture that we can trace much of the peculiar 
and characteristic detail used by the Greeks. On the 
sculptured slabs already mentioned at Koyunjik (Nineveh), 
two miles of which were uncovered, are represented build- 
ings with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form 
in embryo. 

Further, we may say with some certainty that Greece 
took from Assyria the idea of the sculptured friezes, the 
coloured decorations, and the honeysuckle and guilloche 
ornaments ; the latter may be seen in a pavement slab from 
the palace at Koyunjik, now in the British Museum. 

The Corinthian column, as mentioned, seems probably to 
have been derived from Egypt and Assyria. From Asia 
Minor Greece took the Ionic column — a prototype being 
also seen at Persepolis — perfecting it with that consummate 
skill and grace with which she transformed her borrowings. 
From Egypt, it is considered by some, that Greece took the 
Doric order, as exemplified in the Tomb of Beni-Hassan, 
and in the Temple of Deir-el-Bahari, on the Nile ! 


Perrot and Chipiez, " History of Art in Chaldaea and 

Charles Texier, " Description de I'Armenie, la Perse, 
et la Mesopotamie." 

A. H. Layard, "Nineveh and its Palaces." 
*' Chaldea," by Z. A. Ragozin. (A most interesting 
account of the people and their history.) 
M. Victor Place, "Assyrie." 
Flandin and Coste's "Voyage en Perse." 
" Sarchedon," by Whyte Melville. (Historical Novel.) 
■^A A visit to the Assyrian Galleries and basement of the 
i| British Museum will afford much interest and information 
the student. Such a visit will impress him with the 
dignity and importance of the style. 




" Fair Greece ! sad relic of departed worth ! 

Immortal, though no more ; though fallen, great ! " — Byron. 


i. Geographical. — A reference to the map of Greece 
(No. 14) shows a country surrounded on three sides by the 
sea, possessed of many natural harbours, convenient for the de- 
velopment of trade. By means of these havens the Phoenician 
merchants in early times carried on commerce with the 
country. The influence of the sea in fostering national 
activity should not be forgotten — an influence, by the way, 
which has done much for the English race. Again, the 
mountainous character of the country, with scarcely a road 
until Roman times, was calculated to isolate the inhabitants 
into small groups, and was instrumental in producing a 
hardy and adventurous people, such as we might expect 
to make good colonists, which the Greeks undoubtedly 

ii. Geological. — In regard to the geological formation 
of Greece, the principal mineral production was marble, 
the most monumental building material in existence ; and 
one which favours purity of line and refinement in detail. 
This material is found in great abundance in the limestone 
mountains of Pentelicus, six miles from Athens, and in the 
island of Paros. The country was also rich in silver, copper, 
and iron. 

iii. Climate. — The climate of Greece is noticeable for the 
hot sun and the heavy rains, factors which were probably to 
a large extent answerable for the porticoes which were the 
feature of their temples. 



iv. Religion. — The Greek religion was a worship of the 
natural phenomena, of which the gods were personifications. 
The priests had to perform certain rites, but they were not 
an exclusive class, and often only served for a period, 
retiring afterwards into private life. Both men and women 
officiated, and a small bright cella takes the place of the 
mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians. 

The characters of democratic Athens and conservative 


14. Map of Greece. 

Egypt are reflected in the difterence between the Acropolis 
and Karnac. 

V. Social and Political. — The origin of the early in- 
habitants seems doubtful, but they were known to the ancients 
under the name of Pelasgi, and appear to have migrated from 
Asia. Their eastern origin is deducible from their religion, 
Herodotus informing us that the names of the Greek gods 
had been transplanted from Egypt. The early or Pelasgic 
period may be taken as extending to the time of the Grecian 
war against Troy, which we note here as proving the 



early connection of the inhabitants of Greece with Asia. 
It was 500 years, however, after the fall of Troy, that the 
new Hellenic civilization is evinced in the construction of 
the Temple of Corinth, the earliest Doric temple that we 
know, it being erected in the seventh century b.c. 

In regard to the people themselves, it is clear how 
the national games and religious festivals united them in 
reverence for their religion, and gave them that love for 
music, the drama, and the fine arts, and that great emu- 
lation in manly sports and contests, which distinguished 
the race. 

We must remember that the people led what we should 
call an open-air life ; the public ceremonies and the adminis- 
tration of justice were carried on in the open air. 

Again, the Greeks, as indicated above, were great colonists, 
and emigration, especially to the coast of Asia Minor and the 
Mediterranean, was a government measure dating from about 
B.C. 700, undertaken not only to establish trade, but also 
to reduce the superfluous population. 

For this reason we shall be prepared to find that many of 
the important buildings of Greek architecture, especially in 
the Ionic style, are in their colonies of Asia Minor, and that 
this connection with the East must have had some influence 
upon their architecture. 

vi. Historical. — The poems of Homer give us a picture 
of the earliest days of Greece. Whether or no the war with 
Troy be an actual fact, what is related has a substratum of 
truth, and the tale probably arose out of the early settle- 
ments of the Greeks in north-west Asia. From the time of 
the Persian wars in the fifth century b.c we have the history 
of Herodotus, at which period the cities of Greece had 
settled down in their several forms of government — tyrannic, 
aristocratic, or democratic — and most of their colonies had 
been founded. The Persians under Cyrus having con- 
quered Babylon, also seized the kingdom of Lydia, where 
they came m contact with Greek colonies in that" district 
and disputes arose, the result being the Persian wars. At 
the battle of Marathon, B.C. 490, the first Persian invasion 
of Greece was unsuccessful, and in b.c. 480 the naval 
victory of Salamis decided the fate of the second under 


Xerxes. The growth of Athens then excited the jealousy 
of Sparta, and the Peloponnesian War which followed, lasted 
from B.C. 431 to 402. The rule of Pericles (b.c. 444-429) / 

marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. ■ 

Sparta became the chief power in Greece, until the rise 
of Thebes and Macedonia took place ; the latter had not 
hitherto been considered as a Greek state, but, by the ability 
of Philip and his son Alexander the Great, it succeeded 
to the leadership of all Greece. In B.C. 334 Alexander set 
out on his great expedition, and in six years he subdued the 
Persian empire, besieged and took Tyre, and received the 
submission of Egypt, where he founded and gave his name 
to the famous city of Alexandria. His conquests extended 
to northern India. He died at Babylon in b.c. 323. The 
effects of his conquest were most important in introducing 
Hellenic civilization throughout Asia. On his death the 
empire he created was split up among his generals, Egypt 
falling to the share of Ptolemy, who founded a dynasty (see 
under Egypt). In Greece itself the formation of leagues 
between cities was attempted, but Roman interference had 
commenced, and gradually increased, until in B.C. 146 Greece 
became a Roman province. 


The general architectural character of the earliest works 
is archaic, heavy, and severe, the influence of the early 
Pelasgic period being at once apparent. 

A gradual change toward refinement and beauty is ob- 
servable, and in the later periods the proportions of the 
columns were more slender, and the mouldings more refined. 
Carving and sculpture of the highest class then completed 
the effect of their great buildings. 

Proportion was of the first importance to the Greeks ; 
they built in truth, construction was apparent, and no mixture 
of principles was allowed, trabeated construction being 
always paramount. Thus in Greek buildings we find sim- 
plicity, harmony, and unity. 

The Grecian style is essentially a columnar and trabeated 


(trabs = a beam) style, one in which a column of stone 
supporting a lintel of the same material is the main feature. 

The arch was never used by the Greeks, who seeirr, if- 
they knew of its existence, as it is believed they did, to 
have strongly objected to the mixing of constructive 

In considering this columnar architecture, we shall have 
to take notice of the so-called " orders of architecture," 
classified as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, each 
with their distinctive features. We may explain here that 
[an "order" in Greek and Roman architecture consists of 
the column, including base and capital, and of its entablature, 
which is the part supported by the column ; the entablature 
is divided into the architrave, or lowest portion ; the frieze, 
or middle member ; and the cornice or uppermost part. All 
of these parts vary in proportion in the different orders as 
do the mouldings and decorations applied to each part 
(Nos. 15, 31). 

We shall be able to trace the Doric column, the oldest, 
plainest, and most sturdy, to its probable Egyptian prototype 
as exemplified at Beni-Hassan ; the Ionic column, especially 
noticeable for its scroll-like spiral capital, to its probable 
prototype in Asia Minor, and the Corinthian column and 
capital to a probable Egyptian and Assyrian prototype ; or 
else, as it has been assumed by some, to a natural develop- 
ment of the Ionic. The characteristics of each order are 
well expressed in the following lines : 

" First, unadorn'd, 
And nobly plain, the manly Doric rose ; 
Th' Ionic, then, with decent matron grace. 
Her airy pillar heaved ; luxuriant last, 
The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. 
The whole so measured, so lessen'd off 
By fine proportion, that the marble piles, 
Forni'd to repel the still or stormy waste 
Of rolling ages, light as fabrics look 
That from the wand aerial rise." — Thomson. 


The disposition of the triglyphs is important in the setting 
out of the order, for the point to be noticed is that the end 
uiLjlyph is not over the centre of the column, as the inter- 
mediate triglyphs are. 
_Jlu.. The cornice has subdivisions of — 
{a.) Bed moulding. 
(^.) Crowning part, or corona. 
The mutules recall the feet of sloping timbers, from which 
many suppose them to be derived. 
Remains : 

In Greece and Sicily, where all the more important 
remains of this order are to be found, we should 
notice : 
The Temple of Corinth (b.c. 650). 
The Temple of Zeus, at .^gina (b.c. 600). 
The Temple of Theseus at Athens (b.c. 465). 
The Parthenon at Athens (b.c. 438) (No. 22). 

See the fine model in the British Museum. 
The Temples at Agrigentum, erected in the fifth 

century bc. 
The Propylaea, or Entrance-gate to the Acropolis 

at Athens, designed by Mnesicles. 
The Temple of Jupiter at Olympia (b.c. 435). 
The Temple of Apollo Epicurius (''The Ally"), 
at BassK, near Phigaleia in Arcadia, built by Ictinus 
r^- in B.C. 420. 
'■^The Parthenon was erected from designs of Ictinus and 
Callicrates in the time of Pericles, Phideas being the super- 
intendent sculptor (Nos. 15 and 22). 

Notice how carefully all optical illusions are corrected : 
as the entasis or graceful swelling of the columns was applied 
to correct an appearance of weakness in the supports, while 
the outer intercolumniation was narrowed for the purpose of 
making the angle of the temple appear stronger. The slight 
hollowing of the underside of beams over the openings served 
to prevent them from appearing to "sag," or drop in the 
middle. The steps of the stylobate are also raised in the 
middle to prevent any appearance of sagging in them at the 
centre. The leaning inwards of all the columns prevented 
an appearance of falling outwards (the axes of the angle 


columns would meet if prolonged at a distance of over a 
mile above the horizon). 

" Earth proudly wears the Parthenon as the best gem upon her zone." 



(No. 23) is of a lighter character and more ornate than the 
Doric. It was principally used by the Greeks in Ionia, Asia 
Minor, hence its name ; and is probably founded on the 
wooden types of the Euphrates Valley. The shafts are fluted 
with twenty-four flutes, separated by fillets. The column has 
a base. The height of the column is generally about nine 
diameters; it has a distinctive capital of spiral-shaped scrolls _3 
probably from an Asiatic prototype as exemplified at Perse- 
polis (No. 13). The form has also been traced to the early 
Mycenean jewellery ; either origin would be sufficient to 
account for its adoption in the later period.' 

The method of striking volutes is a geometrical process 
easily acquired, and given in all books of the orders. 

The entablature is -^- of the column in height, and 
consists of: 

Architrave : in faces. 

Frieze : sometimes plain, but often with sculpture, or 

carving of continuous frieze-like character. 
Cornice : with no mutules, but with characteristic dentil 

ornament, and sometimes also with the egg and dart. 
N.B. — The Doric order provides a setting for sculptor's 
work. The Ionic incorporates it with the order itself, 
usually in the form of carved enrichments on its main lines. 
The most numerous Remains of the Ionic order are 
found in Asia Minor, while the Doric examples are chiefly in . j 
Greece and Sicily. We may mention as examples of the Ionic: I 
The Temple on the Ilissus (r,.c. 484), destroyed by I 
the Turks in 1780. \ 

The Temple of Nike-Apteros("Wingless Victory") \ 

(B.C. 469). I 

The six internal columns of the Propylsea at Athens | 
(B.C. 432). I 

^ For an interesting paper on the origin of the Ionic Volute, see 
R.I.B.A. Journal, 19 Dec, 1895. 


The Erechtheion at Athens (ex. 420), of which St. 

Pancras Church, London, is a modified copy. 
The internal order of the Temple at Bassae, in 
Phigaleia, in which note the angular treatment of 
I The Temple of Diana at Ephesus (b.c. 330), 

*-^ which was reckoned as one of the seven wonders of 

the world. 
The Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene, erected 
by Pythias (1; c. 320). 
In the plate (No. 23) is shown the Ionic order of the 
Temple on the Ilissus at Athens and the Roman treatment 
of the order after Scamozzi (No. 24). 


(No. 25) is still more ornate. It was little used by the 
Greeks. It is generally about 10 diameters high. 
The base and shaft resemble the Ionic order. 
The distinctive capital may have been based on the Ionic, 
or borrowed from the bell-shaped capital of the Egyptians, 
to which was added the spiral of the Assyrians ; it has a 
deep "bell" below, on which is worked a plain circlet of 
acanthus leaves in tiers. The Assyrian honeysuckle orna- 
ment occurs in the capital of the order that decorates the 
monument of Lysicrates at Athens (No. 25). 

We may here note Prof. Baldwin Brown's opinion that 
the foliage ornament carved on capitals is a copy of actual 
foliage, \vreathed for festal purposes, round the heads of the 
posts of a porch. 

The abacus to the capital is generally moulded, and the 

entablature, which is 2- diameters high, bears a general 

resemblance to the Ionic, but with the addition of modil- 

lions, and increased enrichments in the mouldings. 

Remains : 

The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates at 

Athens, b.c. 335 (No. 27). 
The Tower of the "Winds at Athens, b.c. 159, 
where notice should be taken of the Egyptian type of 
capital used. 



were the largest buildings the Greeks attempted. They were 
unroofed, the performances taking place in the daytime. 
There were few actors, and therefore they had only a shallow 
stage. A permanent architectural background with door- 
ways answered for the scene. 

The chorus executed dances, and chanted, in a circular 
inclosure in front of the stage. 

The auditorium was rather more than semicircular in 
plan, in rising tiers, as at the Theatre of Dionysos at Athens, 
where the seats are hollowed out of the Acropolis rock. 

The Theatre at Epidaurus is one of the most perfect in 
Greece, and apparently retains its original Greek arrange- 
ment. The circle in which the orchestra was placed is 
complete. There was apparently no raised platform for the 
stage, which was level with the orchestra. Chambers and 
passages are placed behind the fixed architectural scene. 
The cavea, or auditorium, is rather more than a semicircle 
in plan, and the seats are in rising tiers, cut out of the solid 
rock, and faced with marble. 


At Tiryns and Mycenae, the former situated by the sea-coast 
to the south-west of Athens, remains have been discovered of 
recent years which are of the greatest interest in showing 
the general arrangement of these buildings. 

At MyceucC, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from 
which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the /iiegaron, or 
principal men's apartment, is reached ; this was surrounded 
by a roof, open to the sky in the centre. From the 
megaron other chambers, whose uses are not defined, are 
entered. The women's chambers are planned so as to 
afford the greatest seclusion, and are reached from the other 
side of the outer court. The plans of domestic buildings 
seem to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general 
arrangement of the palaces.^ 

^ Many of the stele or tombstones, in the design of which the Greeks 
excelled, remain in the ".Street of Tombs" at Athens. The upper part is 
generally treated with an anthemion design (No. 31 B). Examples may 
be seen in the British INIuseum. 

27- Choragic Monument or Lvsicrates, Athens, 



H.1 I 1 1 1 •■ 1 1 1 I t 1 I — : ! — r — I 1 — I — 3 

v.v.t ■•■■I L 

t,tij^'}%i:ikiA Oil 
2o. grep:k doorway from the erechtheion. 



A. The Plans (No. 18) of Greek buildings were simple, 
well-judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical. (Exceptions 
to symmetry of plan : the Erechtheion, and the Propyl^a, at 
Athens, and probably the private houses. )_ Plans involving 
the use of the orders were rarely extensive or complicated, 
being generally very regular; yet certain departures were made 
from the general rules, either for the purposes of effect or 
from necessity^ as when columns were placed nearer together 
at the angles of Doric temples. Moreover, the central inter- 
columniation at the Propytea at Athens was wider than the 
others, probably for the passage of chariots. 

Greek temples might be described as Egyptian turned 
inside out ; the courtyard, porticoes, and columned halls 
being replaced by a small cella colonnaded on every face. 
The relations and proportions of these columns constitute 
the^charm of Greek exteriors. 

/Xlircular planning was also adopted, as in the theatres and 
choragic monuments, and octagonal planning, as in the 
Tower of the Winds at Athens. 

B.'„-Walls. — The construction of walls was solid and exact. 
No mortar was used, the joints being extremely fine, and the 
finished surface of the walls was obtained, by a final rubbing 
down of the surface, by slave labour. The material was 
marble, which was accountable for the fine smooth face 
and exact jointing displayed. Hollow wall construction in 
the entablature was practised at the Parthenon, to lessen the 
weight upon the architraves, and perhaps for economy of 
material. In temples the cella walls were mostly masked 
behind columns. , The base of a temple was always well 
marked and defined by steps, giving a real and apparent 
solidity to the structure. The top of the walls was always 
finished by a cornice. 

No towers were used in Greek architecture, the nearest 
[approach to towers being the lofty mausoleum at Halicar- 
nassus,^ and the Lion Tomb at Cnidus, both in Asia Minor. 
! dOpenings. — Greek architecture was essentially a 
|TTftb€ated~~ef beam-construction style. All openings were 

^ For a model and remains of this structure, lately re-arranged, the 
British Museum should be visited. 


spanned by a lintel, i.e. are square-headed. The trabeated 
construction necessitated great severity in treatmentj the 
supports were of necessity close together, because stone 
lintels could not be obtained beyond a certain length. 
Openings are often sloped inwards towards the top, as at 
the doorway to the Erechtheion (No. 28). Relief to the 
facades of temples was obtained by the shadow of the open- 
ings between the columns. 

D. Roofs. — These coincided with the outline of the 
pediment. In temples they were carried by internal 
columns or by the walls of the cella, and were framed in 
timber and covered with marble tiles. Internal ceilings 
were probably also framed into deep coffers. 

E. Columns. — They are generally the whole height of 
the building. As the orders have been fully treated under 
Examples, we summarize only as follows : 

The forerunner of the Doric type is probably exemplified 
at Beni-Hassan and Deir el-Bahari, Egypt, and the most 
perfected form is seen in the Parthenon (No. 22). 

The Ionic was probably introduced from Assyria ; its 
origins can be traced in the Assyrian bas-reliefs in the British 
Museum ; the most perfected form is to be found at the 
Erechtheion, Athens, and the Temple on the Ilissus 
(No. 23). 

The Corinthian is considered by some as the natural 

outcome of the Ionic ; it was sparsely used by the Greeks, 

the finest example being the monument of Lysicrates at 

Athens (No. 25), in which the student may see that the 

spiral scroll of the Ionic is retained in a somewhat modified 

form, while the lower portion of the capital is surrounded by 

^can.thus leaves. 

■ / Caryatides, or carved human figures used in the place 

\ of columns, are of Asiatic origin, and were employed by the 

f Greeks.; Ex. : The Erechtheion at Athens, a cast of which 
is seeiiTin the illustration from King's College Museum 
(No. 71). 

F. Mouldings. — Refer to sketches of Greek Mouldings 
compared with Roman (Nos. 29, 30, 31). A comparative 
selection will be found at the Architectural Museum at 
King's College, London (No. 32). 



J "Mouldings are the means by which an architect draws 

-«: line upon his building." 

A true knowledge of the effect of contour is to be best 
obtained from actual work rather than from drawings, and 
the examples at the British Museum must be studied. 


29. Greek Mouldings. 

The principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was re- 
finement. The influence of an almost continuous sunshine, i 
a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble material, had|y 
naturally great influence in the production of these delicate 

30. Roman Mouldings. 

Grecian mouldings are not parts of circles ; they were pro- 

■ bably drawn by hand, but approach very closely to various 

conic sections, as parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. 

A^ofe.—As a -general rule the lines of t-b^-enrichment or 

carving on any Greek moulding correspond to the 

profile of the moulding on which it is carved. This 



is a rule that was rarely departed from, and therefore is 
one worthy of notice. The profile of the moulding is 
thus emphasized by the expression in an enriched form 
of its own curvature. 
Notice the examples given from full-size sections taken 

at the Parthenon and the Erechtheion (No. 29). 
The following are the most important mouldings in a 
classified list : 
(a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). 

When enriched it is carved with the honeysuckle 

ornament, whose outline corresponds with the sec- 
(^.) The cyma reversa. When enriched it is carved 

with the water-lily and tongue. 
(c.) The ovolo (egg-like), when enriched is carved 

with the egg and dart, or egg and tongue ornament. 
(d.) The fillet, a small plain face to separate other 

(e.) The bead serves much the same purpose as the 1 

fillet, and approaches a circle in section. When 

enriched it is carved with beads, which in fact gave 

the name to the moulding. 
(/.) The cavetto is a simple hollow, and is the upper 

part of the cyma-recta. 
(g.) The scotia is the deep hollow occurring in bases, 

and is generally not enriched. 
(//.) The taurus or torus is really a magnified bead 

moulding. When enriched it is carved with the 

guilloche ornament. 
(/.) bird's-beak moulding is emphatically Grecian; 

it occurs in anta;-caps only, has great value for the 

deep shadow it gives ; as a section it is very suitable 

for the English climate. 
(j.) The corona, the vertical face of the crowning! 

portion of the cornice, was often painted with a! 
T— - — Greek " fret " pattern. 

G. Decoration (No. 31). — The acanthus leaf and scroll, 
plajf^n important part in Greek ornamentation. ' The leaf 
_ ows wild in the south of Europe, in two varieties : (f) 
That with broad blunt tips, and (d) that with pointed and 



narrow lobes. Note the Greek preference for the pointed 

The acanthus is found in the Corinthian cap (Nos. 26, 31), 
and is also seen in the crowning finial of the choragic monu- 
ment of Lysicrates. The scroll which accompanies the leaf 
acts as a stalk, and is square in section with sharp edges ; 
the leaf has deeply drilled eyes. 

The sculpture employed by the Greeks was of the highest 

Ex. in the Parthenon : The great frieze round the cella, 
the tympana of the pediments, and the metopes, or square 
spaces, in the frieze (No. 20). In later work the Caryatides, 
aa-at the Erechtheion. 

' Colour appears to have been largely used, and many traces 
are left 7^ 


Stuart and Revett's "Athens." (The large folio volume, 
and also the small 8vo handbook.) 

Wilkins' "Magna Gr^cia" and "Prolusiones," the latter 
j for drawings, etc., of the Erechtheion. 

Penrose's " Principles of Athenian Architecture." 

CockerelFs "^'Egina and Bassag." 

Inwood's "Erechtheion." 

" Die Architektonischen Ordnungen der Griechen und 
Romer," by Mauch. 

'•' History of Art in Primitive Greece," by Perrot and 

"The Fall of Athens," by A. J. Church. (Historical 

The student should visit the Greek Court at the Crystal 
Palace for the sake of a splendid model of the Parthenon 
facade, and also the British Museum for actual fragments 
of the sculpture from the temples. 



See the wild waste of all devouring years ! 

How Rome, her own sad sepulchre appears ! — Pope. 


i. Geographical." — The map (No. ^^) will show that the 
sea coast of Italy, although the peninsula is long and narrow, 
is not nearly so much broken up into bays, or natural 
harbours, as the shore line of Greece, neither are there so 
many islands studded along its coasts. Again, although 
many parts of Italy are mountainous — the great chain of the 
Apennines running from one end of the peninsula to the 
other — yet the whole land is not divided up into little 
valleys in the same way as is the greater part of Greece. 

We may therefore with fair accuracy compare the Greek 
and Italian nations in these respects : (a.) The Romans 
never became a seafaring people as the Greeks did, nor did 
they send out colonists of the same description to all parts 
of the world that they knew. {l>.) There were never many 
equal and rival cities in Italy as in Greece, and the small 
Italian towns, being less jealous of their separate indepen- 
dence, and more ready to join in leagues, the Roman power 
could be built up by a gradual absorption of small states, a 
y:)rocess that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. 

ii. Geological.— The geological formation of Italy differs 
from that of Greece, where we find the chief and almost the 
only building material is marble ; because in Italy besides 
marble we note that stone, brick, and terra-cotta, especially 
the two former, are largely used even for their more im- 
portant buildings. The quarries of Tivoli (near Rome) sup- 
plied the stone for many of the principal buildings erected 



in Rome. Brick was used in bulk for walling, with a 
stone or marble casing. Roman architecture, as it spread 
itself over the whole then known world, would be influenced 
naturally by the materials found in the various parts where 
it planted itself, but bricks or concrete in conjunction with 
brick casing or banding were the favourite materials. 

iii. Climate. — The north has the excessive climate of 




. ■;.S4Ti.i/i.''HRvc,^A,; 

—BUS } --^., v,g 

33. Map of the Roman Empire. 

the temperate region of continental Europe, central Italy is 
more genial and sunny, while the south is almost tropical. 

iv. Religion. — The heathen religion of ancient Rome 
being looked upon as part of the constitution of the state, 
e\entually the worship of the gods was only kept up as a 
matter of state policy. The emperor then received divine 
honours, and may almost be described as the leader of the 
Pantheon of deities, embraced by the tolerant and wide- 
sjireading Roman rule. Officialism naturally stamped its 
:haracter on the temple architecture. 

V. Social and Political. — At the beginning of civiliza- 


tion we find three chief nations dweUing in the peninsula. 
In the central portion (or Etruria) lived the Tuscans, 
whose origin is doubtful ; they were probably an Aryan 
people, who appear to have been settled in Italy before 
authentic history begins ; they were great builders, as we 
shall notice later. In the south of Italy, the Greeks had 
planted many colonies, which were included in the name 
of " Magna GrEecia." The remainder of Italy (exclusive of 
Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes sprung from the same 
Aryan stock as the Greek, and the common forefathers of 
both must have stayed together after they had parted off 
from the forefathers of the Celts, Teutons, and others. But 
long before history begins the Greeks and Italians had sepa- 
rated into distinct nations, and the Italians had also split up 
into distinct nations among themselves. The common form 
of government in ancient Italy resembled that of Greece, 
consisting in towns or districts joining together in leagues. 
Rome was firstly governed by chosen kings, aided by a 
senate and an assembly of the people. The kings appear 
to have been driven out about b.c. 500. The commonwealth 
succeeded, and was followed by the Empire, which com- 
menced with Augustus CtEsar in B.C. 27. 

vi. Historical. — The foundation of Rome is an un- 
certain date. The republic which succeeded the Kings 
engaged in wars with its neighbours, and conquered several 
Etruscan cities, meeting, however, with defeat in e.g. 390, at 
the hands of the Gauls, who continued to hold the northern 
part of Italy. In about B.C. 343 began the Roman conquest 
of the whole of Italy, which was effected in about sixty years, 
the dominion of a city over cities. Then came the wars 
with peoples outside of Italy, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, 
being subdued, and the first great war against Carthage 
brought to a conclusion, in B.C. 241. The beginning of 
the Roman provinces is made with Sicily in b.c. 241. 

The second Punic war with Carthage was the most severe 
struggle in which the Romans had engaged ; Hannibal, 
entering Italy from Spain, defeated all the Roman armies, 
and maintained himself in a hostile country, until recalledi 
by a counter attack of the Romans upon Carthage itselfj 
under Scipio. 


The third Punic war (b.c. 149-146) ended in the total 
destruction of Carthage, whose territory became a Roman 
province. The conquest of Macedonia and Greece was 
also proceeding, and was effected in the same year as the 
destruction of Carthage. Greece formed a stepping stone 
to Western Asia, which gradually acknowledged the Roman 
power, until in b.c. 133 it also became a province. The 
conquest of Syria followed, the Roman empire extending 
from the ocean to the Euphrates, while Caesar's campaigns 
in Gaul in b.c. 59 made the Rhine and the Bristol Channel 
its northern boundaries. In b.c. 55 Caesar crossed into 

This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at 
home, and rendered the empire a political necessity owing 
to the difficulty of governing so many provinces under the 
previous system. On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia, Csesar 
remained without a rival, and his murder in b.c. 44 only 
produced fresh disturbances, until on the defeat of Antony 
at Aktion, Augustus Caesar (his nephew) was made emperor 
B.C. 27, and governed till his death, B.C. 14. 

That period was the " Augustan age '"' of literature ; the 
poets Virgil, Horace, and Ovid, and Livy the historian were all 
contemporaries. Following Augustus came the long line of 
emperors, and under Trajan (a.d. 98-1 17) the empire reached 
its greatest extent. Italy went out of cultivation and de- 
pended on imported corn ; a turbulent populace, and the 
huge armies required to keep in check the barbarian tribes 
on every frontier, dominated the government. Emperors 
soon chosen were sooner murdered, and the chaos that 
gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. 

Architecture fell into complete decay until the vigorous 
efforts of Constantine did something to revive it. The 
force, in fact, that had been growing up was Christianity, 
which obtained under the latter emperor official recognition. 
(See section en Early Christian Architecture.) 



Roman architecture proper may be said to have lasted 
from the first to the fourth century a.d. 

The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated style of 
the Greeks, and joined it to the Arch, the Vault, and the 
Dome, which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etrus- 
cans, and the union of these two elements of arch and 
beam is the keynote of the style. 

The ColosseunrCNo. 36) at Rome is a good example of the 
junction of these two great constructive principles. As it 
has been pointed out, the piers between the arches on the 
different storeys are strengthened by the columns applied to 
them ; and thus the columns without doubt act the part of 
buttresses; the column has become part of the wall, and 
does not any longer carry its entablature unaided. 

This introduction of the arch as an architectural form . 
led, through the basilica, to the construction of those glorious 
Gothic cathedrals, which were erected in the Middle Ages. 

We have been accustomed, in Greek architecture, to 
buildings of only one storey in height ; now, however, owing 
to the varying needs of the Romans, we find buildings of 
several storeys ; and the orders, with column and entablature 
complete, are piled one on top of the other. Thus the 
orders ceased to be a constructive element, and became 
decorative features. 

The Temples follow in the main the Greek type, but 
with far less refinement in design and detail. The great 
Baths for recreation and study, the Amphitheatres, Aque- 
ducts, Bridges, Tombs, Basilicas, and the Fora, are the 
proofs of Roman greatness. Herein was shown great 
constructive ability, and a power to use the materials to 
hand, with the best possible results (see page 61 in Examples 
as to the Baths of Caracalla). 

Conquest, wealth, and power were the ideals of the 
Roman, and these are well expressed in the architecture 
which has come down to us. 




The Etruscans were great builders, and knew the full 
value of the arch for constructive purposes, using it 
extensively in their works. 

The architectural remains of the Etruscans consist chiefly 
of walls and tombs, which have a great similarity to the 
early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and Mycense. The walls 
are remarkable for their great solidity of construction, and 
for the Cyclopean masonry, where huge masses of stone 
are piled up without the use of cement, or mortar of any 
kind. The Cloaca Maxima, or great drain of Rome, ad- 
mittedly an Etruscan work, has a semicircular arch of 
from 10 to 13 feet span, in three rings of arch stones. 
Moreover, in bridges, aqueducts, and city gates, the radiating 
arch was used by them at an early date. 


which were many and varied, are difficult to summarize in a 
short space. Remains are found throughout Europe, as at 
the Roman settlements of Nimes and Aries in France ; also 
at Tarragona and Segovia in Spain, at Treves in Germany, 
at Constantine, etc., in North Africa, and at Baalbec and 
Palmyra in Asia. See map of Roman Empire (No. 33). 

In England there are many remains. See under English 
Architecture, page 133. 


Note. — The orders are described in the comparative table at 
the^nd, page 76. 

dThe Roman temples resembled in many respects, and 
were founded on, those of Greece. jWe give a sheet of Greek 
plans giving the technical name? for many of these, which 
it is hoped will be useful to the student (No. 18). 

/The characteristic Roman temple has no side colonnades, 
as are found in Greek examples, the order of columns being 

ttached to the flank walls. Such temples had steps at the 
portico ends only, the flight being inclosed by wing walls, 



continued along the flanks as a podium to the order, and 
finished at their extremities as pedestals for statues. This 
class is known as pseudo-peripteral (No. 34), meaning a 
temple where the encircling colonnade is replaced by three- 
quarter columns. 

Such temples could be built on a larger scale than the 
Greek examples, and with greater ease, as the architraves 
unsupported by the walls are few in number. A loss of 
unity resulted, in comparison with Greek work, in conse- 
quence of the abolition of the side colonnades, and the 
stopping of the steps by the wing walls, for the steps when 
carried round formed a base to the whole structure. 1 

The more important Remains of Temples in 
Rome are : 

The Ionic Temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome (pseudo- 

The Temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome. » Only three co- 
(2nd cent. B.C.) rlumns of each 

The Temple of Jupiter Tonans at Rome. J remaining. 
The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, which is now 
the Church of St. Lorenzo. (Pseudo-peripteral.) (a.d. 141.) 
The more important Remains of Temples out- 
side Rome are: 

' The Temple of Jupiter Olympius, completed 

by Hadrian in A.D. 117. It is decastyle in front 

with twenty Corinthian columns on each flank, 

58 feet in height. It equalled in size the great 

hypostyle hall at Karnac, and was the third 

.largest temple in existence (No. 18 x.). 

f Hexastyle temple at Nimes (No. 34 and 

In France.- 18, vii.), erected during the reign of Hadrian 

lin the second cent. a.d. 

At Baalbec are a group of temples of great 
interest. The great temple stood in a court 
380 feet square with recessed porticoes. In 
front of this was a hexagonal cortile entered 
by a decastyle Corinthian portico 260 feet long. 
The smaller temple equals the Parthenon in 
size, and there is also an unique circular 


In Syria. 



are another form used by the Romans, the shape being 
probably borrowed from the Etruscans. 

Ex. Temple of Vesta at Rome. 
,, ,, „ ,, Tivoli (near Rome) (No. i8, iii.). 

Probably both erected during the reign of Augustus, 
B.C. 27 — A.D. 14. 

Both of these consist of a circular cella surrounded by a 
peristyle of Corinthian columns. The cella was probably 
carried up above the roof of the peristyle and separately 
roofed, but restorations vary as to the crowning features. 

The difference in design of the two examples, and the 
reasons for the same, are instructive. The Roman example 
being placed in a low and flat situation, required all the 
height that could be given it ; hence the columns are of 
slender proportions ; while the temple at Tivoli being placed 
on the edge of a rocky cliff, and thus provided with a lofty 
basem.ent, required to be low and sturdy in proportion, lest 
it-should look insecure. ^ 

\ The Pantheon at Rome (No. 1 8, xiii.), the date of which 
was formerly doubtful, is nowToiown, by recent investigations, 
to have been built during the reign of Hadrian, probably 
A.D. 123, on the site of a three cell temple of Etruscan type, 
Ibuilt, during the reign of Augustus, by Agrippa in a.d. 27. 
The portico is that of the old temple taken down, and re- 
erected as the frontispiece of the new building. This portico 
consists of sixteen Corinthian columns of Egyptian marble, 
planned in three bays, in the sam.e manner as the Etruscans 
formed the entrances to their three-cell temples. The exact 
date of the circular portion was discovered by the inscrip- 
tion on the bricks, which were opened out during the work 
of restoration in X892. 

The Pantheon is a circular building, the internal diameter 
being 145 feet 6 inches, which is also theheight of the interior. 
The walls of brickwork are 20 feet in thickness. Hol- 
lowed out of these thick walls are eight great recesses, one 
of which forms the entrance ; three of the remaining seven 
are semicircular exhedrge, the other four are rectangular on 
plan. The cupola has been discovered by M. Chedanne to 


be formed, not of concrete, as was formerly supposed, but 
of brick laid horizontally, each course overlapping the one 
beneath, so that no thrust is exerted on the walls which 
support it. 

The internal surface of the cupola is cofferecTjN'o. 35), 
and note should be taken of the way in which the mouldings 
or sinkings of these coffers are regulated, so as to be seen 
correctly from below by the spectator. 

Externally the cupola was originally covered by tiles of 
bronze, and gilded. The portico also had a bronze ceiling, 
sincg removed for the sake of the metal. 

J,'he old Roman bronze doors and frame, however, still 
remain (No. 41). 

The structure was probably faced externally with white, 
and internally with coloured, marblesjjthe present internal 
casing has been assumed by Mons. Chedanne to be 

^jbe lighting is effected by one circular unglazed opening 
(No. 3O, 27 feet in diameter, placed in the crown of the 

Thirrnethod of lighting produces an effect which is most 
impressive and solemn ; and there may have been a symbolic 
purpose in thus imitating the appearance of the vault of the 
heavens in this temple of all the gods, the idea being that 
the worship of Jove should take place in a building open 
to the sky. " One great eye opening upon heaven is by far 
the noblest conception for lighting a building to be found in 

Diocletian's Temple at Spalatro (a.d. 284) is a 
further development of the last named. Internally it is 
circular, 28 feet diameter, decorated with columns placed in 
its angles, and crowned with a dome constructed in tiers of 
brick arches. Externally it is octagonal, surrounded by a! 
low peristyle of columns. 

The Christian baptisteries erected in the following cen- 
turies, were adapted from such circular temples, which are 
therefore extremely interesting and instructive. 



(JThe forum in a Roman city corresponds with the agora 
in the Greek city ; and was an open space usually sur- 

ounded by porticoes, colonnades, public buildings, and 

idorned with pillars of victory, and statues to great men. 

The basilica, or hall of justice, was generally entered from 
the forum.""' 

The forum corresponds to the " place " of the French 
towns, and to the " market place " of English country 

In our metropolis, the Royal Exchange corresponds to 
the ancient forum, as a place where the merchants could 
meet, and discuss matters of business. 


comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans, 
bearing witness to the national love of government and 
justice. They are interesting as a link between classic and 
Christian architecture, as will be explained later on. 

The usual plan was a rectangle, whose length was two 
or three times the width ; two or four rows of columns 
ran its entire length, thus creating three or five avenues. 
Over the aisles were usually placed galleries. 

The entrance was at one end, the tribunal at the other on 
a raised dais, which was generally placed in a semicircular apse, 
partly cut off from the main body of the building by columns. 
In the centre of the apse at the extreme end sat the president, 
and on his right and left the assessors. 

In front of the apse was the altar, where sacrifice was 
performed before commencing any important business. 

The building was generally covered with a wooden roof, 
and the exterior seems to have been of small importance, 
being sacrificed to the interior. 

Remains : 

Example of a basilica with wooden roof. 

The Ulpian, or Trajan's Basilica at Rome, of which 
ApoUodorus of Damascus was the architect (b.c. 98). It 


was 180 feet wide, 360 feet long; the central nave being 87 
feet wide, the side aisles 23 feet 4 inches. Total interna'^ 
height 120 feet. 

It had a semicircular apse, raised by means of steps, and in I 
front of the apse was the altar of sacrifice. 

The basilica was entered, from the Forum of Trajan, by 
a central and two side doorways. 

In connection was the celebrated Trajan's column. 
92 feet in height, of which there is a full-size cast in the 
South Kensington Museum. It stood in a court with 
storeys of galleries around, from which the elaborate 
sculpture could be viewed (see page 66), " group winding 
after group with dreamlike ease." 

Example of a vaulted basilica. 

TheBasilicaofMaxentius, or Temple of Peace, 
at Rome. (a.d. 312.) 

It was 195 feet wide, and 260 feet long. 

The central nave was 83 feet between the piers, and 
120 feet high. 

The side aisles are roofed as three great semicircular 
archways, each 72 feet in span, and the nave is covered 
by an immense intersecting vault in three compartments 

The division walls to the side aisles are the supports of 
the central cross vaulting, the three bays communicating by 
arches through them. Monolith columns, attached to the 
face of these piers, received the springers of the main vaults. 
Light was obtained for the nave from above the aisle vaults 
by means of lunettes, or semicircular windows, placed in the 
spandril of the main cross vaults. 

The building is a prototype in many respects of a Gothic 
vault, all the thrust and weight of the superstructure being, 
by means of the intersecting vaulting, collected and brought 
down to various points, where piers are built to receive 

Provincial basilicas. Ex. at Treves in Germany, and 
Silchester in Kent, England. 



are quite as characteristic of Roman civilization as the 
amphitheatres, though probably in origin derived from the 
Greek "Gymnasia."' 

Uses. — They were used for the purposes of bathing, the 
process being very similar to the modern Turkish bath. First, 
a hot-air bath in the so-called Tepidarium ; second, a hot- 
water bath in the Caldarium, next a cold plunge in the 
Frigidarium, or Piscina, and finally the "rubbing down,"' or 
shampooing, in the drying room. 

They were also used for lounging, for various athletic 
exercises, and for the hearing of lectures and discourses ; thus 
supplying the place of the daily paper of to-day for the dis- 
semination of news. They answered, moreover, in a great 
measure to our modern " club " as a rendezvous of social 
life. A small charge (equivalent to one farthing) was made 
to the populace, and in later days they were opened free, 
as a bribe, by emperors in search of popularity. 

The Baths of Caracalla at Rome are the most 
important of all the remains, and^ive one a splendid idea 
of the size and magnificence of these structures. They 
accommodated i,6oo bathers. 

The buildings are contained in an inclosure of 1,150 
feet each way, or about one-fifth of a mile, not counting 
the segmental projection on three of the sides."^ 

Along the road front was a row of small chambers, 
probably used as shops. 

The spaces within the inclosure were laid out for wrestling 
and games, halls being provided, in the segmental pro- 
jections, for dramatic representations and lectures. 

The central building (730x380 feet) was used entirely 
for baths, and had only four openings on the side exposed 
to cold winds (X.E.). It was, however, supplied with large 
columned openings on the south front, giving access to the 

This central block is now in ruins, but restorations have 
been made, by French architectural students and others, 
which show the position of the dressing rooms ; of the 
Piscina (or swimming bath) ; of the Sphaeristeria for 


gymnastics ; of the Frigidarium, or cold-water bath ; of the 
Tepidarium, or warm bath ; and of the Caldarium, or hot 
bath, with its Sudatio. 

The great central vaulted space, and the Rotunda, or 
circular hall, are sufficiently preserved to enable one to 
gain an idea of the immense size of those apartments. As 
a comparison, we might mention that the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, including Westminster Hall, cover about the same 
area as the central block of these baths. 

; The architectural character of these immense 
structures indicates a further secession from Greek prin- 
ciples, in that the exterior treatment was neglected, all their 
glory depending on the adornment and colour of the 

The exteriors of these baths may have been treated in 
stucco, or more wisely left as impressive masses of rough 
brickwork, perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a 
better colour. 

Internally, however, where there is no question Jiut that 
sumptuous magnificence was aimed at, the pavings were 
patterned in mosaic cubes of strong colour^ the lower parts 
of the walls were cased with marble, tfie upper parts with 
enriched and modelled stucco, bright with colour ; the great 
columns, on which rested the vault springers, were of the 
finest porphyry or rare marbles; while the surface of the 
vaults was sunk with rich cofferings, or covered with bold 
figures, or decorations, in black and white, or in coloured 
mosaic. In the halls thus decorated were placed the finest 
sculpture of antiquity, brought from Greece itself, or 
executed in Rome by her artists. 

The Vatican and Roman museums contain the results of 
the first and fruitful excavations in these thermae, during the 
Renaissance period. 

In plan alone, the baths are worthy of study, for while 
])roviding for the practical requirements of the bathers, care 
is taken to lead on from room to saloon and on to the great 
hall, which is the largest and most lofty apartment. More- 
over, by a system of exhedrae or recesses, and by screens of 
columns, and by the relation of parts, any loss of scale was 
provided against, and the grandeur of the whole impressed 


upon the spectator. (In Viollet-le-Diic's lectures, there is a 
drawing of the Frigidarium restored, which gives one a 
good idea of the effect produced.) In the construction 
of the vaults the system was that described on page 60 for 
the Basilica of Maxentius; while the Caldarium, or hot 
room, followed that given on page 58 for the Pantheon, so 
that the latter has been sometimes mistaken for part of 
Agrippa's Baths. 

St. George's Hall, Liverpool, is a reproduction, both in 
scale and design, of the great hall of Caracalla's Bath, but 
with five bays instead of three. 

Other Remains. — The Ephebium, or Great Hall, of 
Diocletian's Baths at Rome (a.d. 314), converted by Michael 
An^elo into the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli. 

The small private bath or balneum was also much used, 
as at Pompeii, where a painting now existing exhibits their 
manner of use ; they were heated by flues under the floors, 
in the walls, and lining the vaults, through which passed 
air, heated in the basement by the hypocaust or furnace. 


The design of the theatres was taken from the Greeks, 
but altered to suit Roman requirements as mentioned 

The plan consisted of a semicircular auditorium — thus 
differing from the Greek theatre, which was rather more 
than semicircular — of tiers of seats one above the other, 
with wide passages and staircases communicating with the 
external porticoes on each storey. On the ground, sepa- 
rating the auditorium from the stage, was a semicircular area 
in which the Greeks placed the orchestra, while in Roman 
times this portion was occupied by the Senators. 

Remains. — At Orange, South France, are the remains of 
la theatre, which must have been an important example; the 
lauditorium being 340 feet in diameter. The stage is rect- 
langular, being inclosed by shallow return walls, at right 
jangles to the great scene or back wall. A ceiling, of 
I wood probably, bounded by these walls, sloped outwards 
to the auditorium, and must have aided the voices of the 


actors. The great wall at the back of the stage, 340 feet 
long by 116 feet high, remains. The Odeion of Herodes 
Atticus at Athens is also a fine example. 
TTThe amphitheatres are truly Roman buildings, re- 
niains being found in every important settlement. They 
are good exponents of the character and life of the Romans, 
who had greater love for mortal combats between men and 
beasts, between men and men, or between beasts alone, than 
for the tame mimicry of the stage. Such combats were 
considered to be a good training for a nation of warriors. 

These buildings were also used for naval exhibitions, as 
the drains, for introducing the water for flooding the arena 
still exist..,: 

Note. — The Spanish bull ring to some degree gives us an 
idea of the arrangement and uses of a Roman amphitheatre. 

The most important example is the Flavian Amphi- 
theatre at Rome, also called the Colosseum (No. 36) 

The date of erection by Vespasian was a.d. 70. 

By an examination of the model at the Crystal Palace, 
a better idea can be obtained of the general distribution of 
its parts than from any written description. 

In plan it is a type of all the examples, consisting of a 
vast ellipse 622 feet x 5 13 feet. The height of the original 
facade (the three lower storeys of arcades) is 120 feet; 
including the later addition of the blank upper storey, it is 
162 feet. The arena proper is 287 feet x 180 feet. The 
seats, in solid stone, rise up on all sides from the oval arena ; 
underneath them are corridors and staircases. The dens 
for the wild beasts are immediately under the lowest tiers 
of seats, and consequently opened on to the arena as at 
Verona (No. 37). 

The construction is strong and solid, and of an en- 
gineering character. The supports have been calculated 
at one-sixth of the whole area of the building. The system 
is one of concrete vaults resting on concrete walls, two feet 
three inches thick, faced with travertine stone four feet thick, 
and having an internal lining of nine inches of brickwork, 
making seven feet in total thickness. The details of the 
exterior orders are roughly executed ; many of the plinth 
moulds, etc., are only roughly worked to a 45° splay. 






< > 

C5 O 

< <u 


The radiating walls are cleverly constructed, concrete 
being used where least weight, tufa stone where more 
weight, and travertine stone where the most heavy pressures 
have to be supported. 

The constructional idea consists of wedge-shaped piers 
radiating inwards, the vaults running downwards to the 
centre from the high inclosing walls (No. 36) ; consequently 
no building is more durable or more impossible to destroy — 
a feeling well expressed by the proverb : 

" When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall." 

If it has not come down to us in a perfect condition, it is 
because it was used as a stone quarry for Rome for centuries, 
many of the later buildings being erected with stones taken 
from this building alone. 

I In criticising the general architectural character of this 
wonderful building (No. 36), we may especially note : first, 
the multiplicity of its parts, three tiers of apparently count- 
less arcades encircling the exterior, divided and united by 
1 three tiers of orders. Second, the grand sweeping lines 
I of the unbroken entablatures running entirely round the 
{ building. Third, that the classic orders of architecture are 
i purely decorative, and are piled one over the other, in 
I btrong contrast to the Grecian method of single orders. 
Fourthly, the weight of the structure is supported by the 
wall behind, the oval being divided into eighty arches en- 
circling the building. 

I There are other remains of amphitheatres, especially one 

I in splendid preservation at Verona, in North Italy (No. 

37), at Nimes and Aries in France, and Pola in Istria, 

and also remains of a roughly-made example at Dorchester 

in Dorset. 


The former were erected to generals and emperors, in 
honour of their victories, and were often placed at the 
entrance to cities. 


In general arrangement they consisted of a lofty semi- 
circular central arch resting on an impost, with columns on 
either side, besides architectural decorations they were 
also adorned with statuary. 

An attic (or surmounting mass of stonework) was placed 
above, inscribed with the warlike deeds of the general to whom 
the monument was erected. 

Ex. of single arch. — The Arch of Titus at Rome (a.d. 8i). 

The larger examples, e.g., the Arch of Septimius Severus 
(No. 38), and that of Constantine, have smaller arches on 
either side of the central one. 

Note. — The Marble Arch in London will give a general 
idea of the arrangement in three arches ; while that at 
Hyde Park Corner has but one. 

Rostral columns were erected to celebrate naval 
victories, in which rostra, or prows of ships, are used in 
the ornamentation. In the time of the emperors they were 
numerous ; a recital of the deeds which led to their erection 
was carved upon them. 

Pillars of victory were usually placed in open courts, 
or in the Forum, and were surrounded by porticoes, whence 
the spectator could obtain views at various levels, and was 
thus able to read the inscriptions, and sculptured figures, 
with which some were decorated. Ex. : Trajan's column 
(page 60). 

"The sculptures wind aloft 
And lead, through various toils, up the rough steep 
The hero to the skies." 


bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples, whose 
influence should be noted. 

{a.) Caves were hewn in the rock, or subterranean vaults, 
called Columbaria, were built and adorned with paintings and 
mosaics ; internally were divisions or cells 3 feet by 3 feet, 
containing the sepulchral urn, in which the ashes of the 
deceased who had been cremated were placed, and upon 
which his name was carved. 

{b.) Monumental tombs. These consisted of tower- 




shaped blocks, square or round, resting on a quadrangular 

The Tomb of Cecilia Metella (b.c. 6o), at Rome, has a 
basement, loo feet square, on which rests a circular tower 
()4 feet in diameter, crowned probably with a conical roof. 

One of the next important of these monumental tombs is 
the Tomb of Hadrian, now called the Castle of St. Angelo, 
on the banks of the Tiber at Rome. 

It consists of a square basement, 340 feet each way, and 
75 feet high, on which rests a circular tower 235 feet in 
diameter, and 140 feet in height. The sepulchral apartment 
is in the centre of the solid mass, and approached by a 
circular inclined plane, starting at the centre of the river 

Some of these tombs must have appeared as artificial hills, 
lieing ascended by inclined roads, and planted with trees. 

The Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome, whose origin 
is unknown, as also its date, is placed here, although Mr. 
I'ergusson is inclined to think it was erected in later times. 
It was probably a Christian building, erected in the third cen- 
tury A.D. It has semicircular niches to nine of the sides, the 
tenth being the entrance ; above are ten windows at the base 
■ if the dome to light the interior. The dome is polygonal 
on the exterior and interior, of concrete, ribbed with tiles, 
and bears a remarkable similarity to that of San Vitale at 

N.jB. — The rudiments of the pendentive system are to be 
seen in the manner in which the dome is set on to the 
polygonal base ; a system afterwards carried to great 
perfection by the Byzantines. The buttresses are 
placed at points where they are required, therefore 
thinner walls were used ; this is an important step to 
Gothic principles. Compare in this respect the 
(c) The Egyptian pyramidal form is also used. 
Example. — The Pyramid of Cestius at Rome. 
{d.) Smaller tombs of various forms are generally erected 
at entrances to cities. Many are sarcophagus-shaped, resting 
on high basements ; others resemble small temples. 
Example. — The Street of Tombs at Pompeii. 


" Those ancient roads 
With tombs high verged, the solemn paths of Fame ; 
Deserve they not regard ! o'er whose broad flints 
Such crowds have roll'd ; so many storms of war, 
So many pomps, so many wondering realms." — Dyer. 


were really of a more engineering than architectural character, 
being in the main utilitarian. Rome had to be supplied 
with water from a distance, because of the badness and 
scarcity of the water on the spot, the Tiber being unfit for 
drinking purposes. 

In any views of the Campagna round Rome, the ruined 
aqueducts are striking features. On approaching the Eternal 
City in the days of its glory, from all directions these 
enormous arched waterways must have seemed to the 
stranger to be converging into the centre. A view, from 
Windsor Castle ramparts, of the S.W.R. arched train-way 
winding across the valley of the Thames will give a faint 
ide-a^of one only of such structures. 

The principle of all the examples is similar — a level 
channel, lined with cement, is carried on arches, often in 
several tiers, and sometimes of immense height (say_ioo 
feet) from the high ground, across valleys, to the city 
reservoir. Some examples have channels one above the 

The Aqua Claudia, 45 miles long, and the "Anio 
novus," 62 miles long (date a.d. 48), entered the city on 
the same arches. 

Perhaps the finest remaining, however, is the Pont du 
Gard, near Nimes in France. It has ihree tiers of arches 
of rough masonry, spanning a valley at about 180 feet above 
the stream. The arches are rather lower in proportion than 
usual, the top tier being much smaller than the two below. 
It is strikingly impressive by the very simplicity of its bold 

r^Bridges were firstly of wood, but on the introduction of 
the arch, stone was employed in their erection. 

The characteristics of Roman bridges are that they are 
solid, sturdy, and built to last for ever. Many still remain, 


principally in the Roman provinces. A general feature is 
that the roadway was kept level throughout. 

There are two types of Roman bridges in Spain, which 

equally impress the traveller, as for instance the extreme 

length of the many-arched example at Cordova ; or the 

, romantic sweep of the single arches that span the rocky 

valley of the Tagus at Toledo. 


The ruins of the Roman palaces only remain, but there 
is enough to show their enormous extent and imposing 

Examples. — The Palace of the Caesars on the 
Palatine Hill, Rome, excavated largely by the Emperor 
Napoleon. The plan shows the reception and state 
apartments only, as the Tablinum, or throne room ; the 
Basilica, or hall for administering justice ; the Peristylium, a 
square garden surrounded by a colonnade ; the Triclinium, or 
dining-hall, commanding a view of gardens beyond. These 
are all features which we may expect in each example, in 
addition to the many minor chambers of service, etc., 
whose uses cannot now be ascertained. 

The Palatine remains are in fact a group of palaces, added 
to or reconstructed, by successive emperors, but the student 
of architecture visiting the site will most likely be more 
impressed with the giant remains attributed to Severus. 
Nero's golden house, preceded by an experimental palace, 
the "Transitorium," would seem to have exceeded the 
bounds of possibility, judging solely by the descriptions 
which alone have come down to us. 

The Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro in Dal- 
matia (third century a.d.) is another famous example. 

The plan consists of a parallelogram 592 feet x 698 feet, 
placed in an area of g^ English acres ; the palace itself 
thus practically equalling in extent the Escurial in Spain. 

It may be described as a royal country house, or better 
perhaps, as a chateau by the sea. It has a colonnade from end 
to end of the sea front, resting on a basement washed by the 
waves ; terminated by towers, which, placed also along the 


landward fagades, gave it the character of a Roman camp. On 
each of these fagades, between such towers, were rich gateways ; 
viz. the golden, iron, and brazen, ending the porticoed streets ; ' 
which divided the inclosed area into four parts, each 
assigned to a particular purpose. The two northern portions 
were probably for ihe guests and principal officers of the 
household ; while the whole of the southern portion was 
devoted to the palace, including two temples (see under 
circular temples, page 58). A circular vestibule formed an 
entrance to a suite of nine apartments overlooking the sea; 
here were placed the private apartments and baths of the 
emperor. The state rooms include an Imperial Basilica, or 
Hall of Justice. 

Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area, on three 
sides, internally, were the cells that lodged the slaves and . 
soldiers of the imperial retinue. The temple, and the more 
lofty halls of the palace proper, must have been visible above 
the inclosing walls in distant views by land and sea. 

In architectural character it is noticeable for the debased 
style, in which broken and curved pediments with rococo 
detail occur. Its value, however, as a transitional example 
must not be overlooked. (It has been well illustrated in 
Adam's " Spalatro.") 


Allusions to these may be found in the Odyssey of Homer. 
Drs. Schliemann and Dorpfeld's discoveries at Tiryns and 
MycenjE in Greece, and more especially the excavations at 
Pompeii, are the chief authorities on the subject. 
■ In the early Grecian dwellings (see page 44) the rooms 
were grouped round an atrium or courtyard open in the 
centre. The women's quarters were singularly private, 
reached by tortuous passages and carefully planned door- 
ways, as evidenced in the excavations at Tiryns and Mycenae. 
The women were placed in one part of the house, as in 
Turkish harems, and the men in the other. 

The principle of seclusion was sought after, although there 
are no traces of doors having being used, the doorways 


being probably hung with curtains. There were, it is sup- 
posed, windows, possibly unglazed. 

The front part of the early Grecian house was the men's 
portion, while in the Roman it was the public part of the 
building. The back or secluded part of the Grecian house was 
the women's abode, while in the Roman it was set aside for 
the use of the family (No. 39). 

From these comparisons we may note that the Romans 
were not so seclusive as the Greeks. / 

Pompeii and Herculaneum. 

The excavations at Pompeii have thrown considerable light 
on this important subject. It has been supposed that these 
remains differ little from the later Greek dwellings, as 
Pompeii on the Bay of Naples was a Greco-Roman city. It 
was overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius in a.d. 79, and 
buried by ashes, ten feet above the top of the houses. 

Lytton's great novel, " The Last Days of Pompeii,'' will be 
found of interest to the student as a description of the habits 
and life of the Romans. 

The streets of Pompeii were narrow, i.e., 8, 12, or 15 feet 
wide. The widest is 23 feet 6 inches, the roadway being 
13 feet 6 inches, with two paths 10 feet. The houses had 
plain fronts to the street, the frontage on either side of the 
passage entrance being let off as shops. 

The rooms are lighted from an internal courtyard called 
an " atrium," as are Eastern houses to this day, and in 
former days the inns of France and England. 

The Pompeian houses are mostly of one storey in height, 
but stairs and traces of upper floors exist, for such upper 
storeys probably wood was used, but as a decree was passed 
in the time of Augustus limiting the height of houses in 
Rome to 75 feet, brick or masonry buildings must have 
been carried out to a great height. The openings were 
small, because the light is strong in the sunny climate of 

In the House of Pansa (No. 39), which may be taken 
as a type of all, on entering from the street you pass 
through a vestibule (see plan), and reach the atrium ; which 



serves as the public waiting-room for retainers and clients ; 
from which the more private j^arts of the house were shut 
off. The atrium was open to the sky in the centre, with a 
*' lean-to " or sloping roof round all four sides supported by 

The impluvium, or " water cistern," for taking the water 
from these roofs, was sunk in the centre of the pavement, 
while round the atrium were grouped the front rooms, lit 

r_n.11hT.1ti .nzril 



1-3 PLAN OF 

39 AND 40. Plans of PoiMpeian Houses. 

through the doors, and probably used by servants or guests, 
or as semi-public rooms, e.g. libraries, etc. 

An open saloon, or tablinum, with narrow passages, called 
" fauces," on either side, led to an inner court, or peristyle, 
often the garden of the house. 

On the left of the peristyle are smaller rooms called 
" cubicula," or bedrooms, and the position of the triclinium, 
or dining-room, should be noted, with three couches for nine 
people to recline upon, the recognized number for a Roman 
dinner party, "not less than the Graces nor more than the 
Muses." Two such rooms were often required with differing 
aspects for winter and summer use. 



The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle, 
furthest from the entrance. 

The peristyle is the heart and centre of the private part 
of the house, and corresponded to the hall of Elizabethan 
times. Often a small shrine is placed in this part. 

The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace (No. 40), 
designed by the late Sir Digby Wyatt, is an exceedingly 
good reproduction of an ordinary Pompeian house. Notice 
especially the painted decorations, which are copies of 
original paintings at Pompeii. The darkest colours are 
placed nearest the ground, though sometimes the whole 
room was black, with centres of painted subjects in strong 
colours. The walls, at other times, are richly and fantastically 
painted with slender shafts, as of metal, with entablature, etc., 
in perspective; or else adorned with figure subjects of a gay 
character. The floors of these houses are of mosaic in 
black or white, or of rich and varied colouring. 



A. Plans. — Theirdesigiis had 
refinement and beaut\^^ro- 
portion being of the first 
importance, and there was 
a digmty_and grandeur of 
effect nrespectlv^ 'bt^ the 
smallness of scale. 

I'nity was~attained in the self- 
C?5ntained temples, while ya-_ 
r iety of grouping and^Qroe 
picturesqueness~ was at- 
fempted in the Propylasa and 
Erechtheion (No. 18, xii.). 

Purity and severit y of out- 
line caused by the simple 
method of post and beam, 
which did notTeiTd^Ttself to 
such variety and boldness of 
planning "as resulted from 
arcuated Roman style. 


A. Plans. — Designs bear a 
\-ast and magmflrmt impres- 
sion, characteristic of a 
powerful and energetic race. 
The Romans were eminently 
great c^structQis, and 
knew how to handle the 
materials to hand. This 
constructive skill was ac- 
quired by the building of uti-~ 
Htarian works, such as aque- 
ducts, bridges, etc., on a large 
scale ; hence buildings have 
size and impress of power, 
which are their chief charac- 

The .iirch, vault, and dome 
are the^ keynote to the whole 
system of Roman, and con- 
stitute a step toward Gothic 



No mixture of constructive 
•"^"inciples is seen in the 
buildings of the Greeks, and 
the Hmits of their style have 
not been yet successfully ex- 

r.. W^alls constructed of large 
blocks of marble, wiUiQut 
any mortar, allowing of re- 
finement 1)? treatment, and 
perfection of finish in con- 
struction. One-sixteenth of 
an inch was rubbed off 
the buildings on completion, 
this polishing being per- 
formed by slave labour. 
Jointing was not reckoned 
as a means of effect. Stability 
was achieved solely by the 
judicious obser\ancc of the 
la ws of gravity, for jjjortar 
was unused," the adherence 
of the blocks of marble not 
being necessary, for the 
weights in these structures 
only acted vertically, and 
needed but vertical resist- 
ance. In fact, the employ- 
ment of hewn stone or 
marble directly shaped the 
development of the style. 


architecture. By the use of 
the arch, wide openings are 
rendered possible, and by 
vaultsand domes large areas 
and complicated plans could 
be roofed (No. i8, xiii.). 
Boldness and variety is intro- 
duced by the use of the vault, 
or continuous arch, leading 
to the system of intersecting 
vaults, by which the concen- 
tration of weights on piers 
is effected. 

B "Walls often constructed 
of small, mean, and coarse 
materials, such as brick, rub- 
ble, and concrete, with brick 
or marble facing, bond 
courses for strength being 
introduced. Such walls exe- 
cuted in rough materials as 
mentioned, are thus often 
coarse in character. Notice 
also haste in execution ; in 
the Colosseum, plinths will 
be noticed axed off at forty- 
five degrees. In the haste 
to complete for occupation, 
doubtless many buildings 
were never perfectly finished. 
By their extended use of 
concrete, it may be said that 
they inaugurated the em- 
ployment, in large masses, of 
irregular materials, reduced 
into fragments and bound 
together by mortar. The 
materials which they made 
use of were not special to 
any country, but consisted 
of fragments of stone or hard 
rock and quarry debt-is, all of 
which sufficed for the most ij 
important projects. \ 






C. Openings are of minor 
importance, the columnar 
treatment giving tRe neces- 
saiy light and shade. Doii r- 
ways are square-headed, and 
often crowned with a cornice 
supported by coinsoles (No. 

D. Roofs. — Extreme care 
was bestowed upon the ela- 
]-.r.j^tp]y pmi.^fpirtpfj and 

higJll,j:_finisiieii( roofs of the 
temples. Large sla bs of 
m ^rhlfi ^vprp joined by cover 
pi_eces, which at the eaves 
were fintsFed^ with beauti- 
fulfy " desigmed and carved 
afvEefixa; (Xos. 15, 25, 27). 
CeilTTigs were coffered in stone, 
""with effectively carved mem- 
bers in the angje^ of the 
square recesjes. Probably 
coffered ceTling'^s in framed 
timber roofed over the large 
spans of the cella?. 

E. Columns. — The orde rs 
are a stntctt/ral necessity 
wherevertrsed;- The column 
and beam^are the EEynote 
of Greek architecture. 

The Tuscan Order was 

not employed by the Greeks. 


C. Openings form an impor- 

,tant feature in the buiTdmg^ ' 
and are square-headed 
(No. 41) or circular, prin- 
cipally the latter. The sgoii-^ 
circle divided vertically b)- 
two mullion piers, is a favour- 
ite type of window. 

L). Roofs. -^J^ronze was em- 
ployed in some nota ble 
buildings, as in the Pantheon 
arrd-^me other tenipTes. As 
the Etruscans roofed like the 
Greeks, but with terra cotta, 
the Romans may have con- 
tinued the practice. Elat 
terrace roofs were certainh- 
used (see Vitruvius, and the 
remains at Pompeii). It is 
thought that built-up trusses— 
of T iron and concrete form- 
ing" such terraces, covered 
some of the large halls of the 

For ceilings, the noble 
vaults described before con- 
stituted the greatest Roman 
development. From Horace 
we learn that splendid cof- 
fered wooden ceilings were 
used in thehouses of the rich. 

E. Colum ns. — The orders 
are used in connection with 
the arch, ancTgraduallyJose 
their structural intention, 
being uVeJ in a decorative 
manner, as in the Colosseum 
at Rome. 

The Tuscan Order is a 
variation from the Doric ; the 
column has, however, no 
fluting, and there are no 
triglyphs in the cornice. 




The Doric Order (No. 20) 
was largely used by the 
Greeks, their most important 
buildings being erected in 
this order. It was used with- 
out abase, the capitalhaving a 
plain square abacus, beneath 
which is the echinus (No. 29), 
whose outline varies in difte- 
rent examples. The propor- 
tions of the columns proceed 
from extreme sturdiness in 
the early examples to great 
refinement in the late ones, 
and the shaft is always fluted. 
Thearchitrave overhangs the 
face of the column (No. 20). 
In the frieze, the triglyphs 
are over the central axis of 
the columns, except to those 
bounding the fagade, where 
the columns are brought 
closer together, and the 
triglyph is placed at the 
angle of the frieze (No. 20). 

The Ionic Order (No. 23) 
was used with great refine- 
ment by the Greeks. The 
distinctive capital has the 
scrolls showing on two sides 
only, although an example 
of the method adopted by 
the Romans is found in a 
special case at Bassa;. 

The Corinthian Order 
(No. 25) was little, use_d by 
the Greeks ; the examples 
remaining are thought by 
some to indicate the decline 
of Greek art, in that sculp- 
ture, as such, now gave way 
to mere carving. 


St. Paul's Church, Covent 
Garden, is a good modern 
example by Inigo Jones. 
The Doric Order (No. 21) 
was little used by the Romans, 
not being suited to their 
ideas of splendour and mag- 
nificence. The Romans 
added a base, varied the 
capital by adding extra 
mouldings to the abacus, 
altered the outline of the 
echinus, and modified" the 
cornice by reducing its iiii- 
portance. The flutes were 
sometimes omitted in the 
shafts of the columns, and 
the proportions are less 
sturdy. The architrave does 
not overhang the face of the 
column, but is in a line 
vertical with it (No. 21). In 
the frieze the triglyph comes 
over the central axis of the 
column even at the angle. 

The Ionic Order (No. 24) 
has its cornice further en- 
riched. The capital is made 
uniform all round by the 
volutes being placed angle- 
ways, thus showing" the face 
of the scrolls on each side. 

The Corinthian Order 

(No. 26) was the favourite of 
the Romans ; it was usedlli 
the largest'temples, as those 
of Jupiter Stator and Jupiter 
Tonans at Rome. The 
capital is rich, though often 
coarse, the acanthus leaves 



In Greece, the order was 
not introduced till TRe later 
age, and then appears to 
have been used in small 
building's, only" such as the 
choragic monument of Lysi- 
crates and the octagonal 
Tower of the Winds at 
Athens. The Temple of 
Jupiter Olympius at Athens 
may be considered a Roman 
building. (See page 56.) 

The Composite Order 

was never used by the Greeks. 


oftenbordering on natural- 

The entablature is over- 
ornamented, especially the 
architrave, or lower member. 
An explanation for this has 
been found in the supposition 
that the Romans carved in 
ornamental patterns what 
the Greeks had only painted. 

The cornice has carved 
consoles, which also tend to 
enrich it, and which do not 
appear in the few Greek ex- 
amples which are left to us. 
The Composite Order 
was iiii:ented by the Romans 
by placing the upper por- 
tion of the Ionic capital upon 
the lower part of the Corin- 
thian. In other details the 
order follows the Corinthian, 
but with additional orna- 

F. Mouldings. — The Greeks 
relied for effect on the grace- 
ful contour of their mould- 
ings, which approach conic 
sections in profile. The 
mouldings, though often 
covered with delicately 
carved enrichments, never 
lose the idea of grace of out- 
line which the decoration 
seems but to enhance. Being 
executed in a fine grained 
marble, it is often so much 
undercut as to produce a 
lace-like effect. (See Nos. 29 
and 31.) 

G. Decoration (No. 31). — In 
sculpture the Greeks have 
never been surpassed, 

F. Mouldings. — The Ro- 
mans relied on the rich 
carving cut upon their mould- 
ings ; ostentation replaces 
refinement. In the latest 
examples, every member 
being carved, a certain rich 
picturesqueness of fretted 
surfaces is produced in cor- 
nices and dressings. 

Roman mouldings are 
nearly always parts of a circle 
in section, while the execu- 
tion is often very careless. 
(See Nos. 30 and 31.) 

G. Decoration (No. 31). — 
The Romans did not excel 
in either sculpture or paint- 



whether in isolated groups 
or in works within the boun- 
daries of an architectural 
framing, as at the Parthenon. 
In painting we know of 
Polygnotus and other great 
artists being employed upon 
the temples and other build- 
mgs. Part of the Propyhta 
was known as the Painted 
Loggia. The early frescoes 
were probably in the style 
of the vase painters of that 
period, while the later, if 
we may judge from the pro- 
vincial imitations of Pompeii, 
must have been grand in 
style and decorative in effect. 

ing. Greek artists were em- 
ployed, and Greek examples 
were prized and copied. In 
later times both vaults and 
floors worthy of note were 
produced in mosaic, but 
many examples show great 
vulgarity of sentiment. In 
the case of marble, for wall 
facings and floors, it is pro- 
bable that rich and good 
effects were produced, as the 
Romans were connoisseurs 
in marbles, which they sought 
out and imported from all 
countries. The origin of the 
ox-heads connected with gar- 
lands, so frequently carved 
on Roman friezes, is sup- 
posed to be copied from the 
actual skulls and garlands 
which were hung for decora- 
tion on altars at which the 
beasts to which they be- 
longed had been slain. 


Taylor and Cresy's " Antiquities of Rome." 

Adam's " Spalatro." 

Isabelle's "Edifices circulaires." 

Wood and Dawkins, " Palmyra and Baalbec." 

Piranesi's " Architectura di Romani." 

Viollet-le-Duc, " Habitations of Man in all Ages." 

Tatham, "Classic Ornament." 

Spiers, Mauch, and Chambers for the Classic " Orders." 

Vulliamy's " Classic Ornament." 

"Roman Life in the Days of Cicero," by A. J. Church. 
(Historical Novel.) 

A visit should be made to the Roman and Pompeian 
'Courts at the Crystal Palace ; also to the British Museum. 




"A fuller light illumined all, 

A breeze through all the garden swept." 



i. Geographical. — See under Rome. The position of 
Rome as the centre of a world-wide empire should be 
remembered. "All roads lead to Rome," and Christianity, 
to become universal, had to grow up at the capital, however 
eastern its birthplace. 

ii. Geological. — The quarry of the ruins of ancient 
buildings influenced the work of the period, both in con- 
struction and decorative treatment; the "opus Alexandri- 
num " pavement is based on the nuclei of slices of old 
columns, bound together by patterns, formed of fragments 
of ancient marbles and porphyries. 

iii. Climate. — See under Roman Architecture. 

iv. Religion. — In a.d. 313 Constantine issued his cele- 
brated decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal 
rights with all other religions. Constantine professed Chris- 
tianity himself in a.d. 323, which then became the religion of 
the empire. 

Thjs step led to the practical establishment of Christianity 
as the State religion, and the Christians, who up till then 
were a persecuted sect, and had worshipped in the Cata- 


combs, or burial-places of the early Christians, were now 
able to hold their services openly and freely. 

The Council of Nice, a.d. 325, is called by Constantine, 
and was the first of several Councils of the Church, for the 
settlement of disputes about heresies. 

A temporary reaction takes place in a.d. 360-363, under 
Julian, known as the " Apostate." 

V. Social and Political. — On changing the capital of 
the empire from Rome to Byzantium in a.d. 324 Constantine 
practically reigns as an absolute monarch, the old Roman 
political system coming to an end. 

The series of emperors in the West came to an end in a.d. 
476, and the empire was nominally reunited, Zeno reigning 
at Constantinople over the Western and Eastern Empires. 

Theodoric the Goth reigns in Italy a.d. 493-526, and this 
was a period of peace and prosperity. 

From the Roman or common speech several of the chief 
languages of modern Europe commenced to arise, and in 
consequence are called Romance languages. 

vi. Historical. — The Early Christian period is gener- 
ally taken as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the 
Great, or from a.d. 300 to 600. The period of the Teutonic 
invasions of Italy commenced about a.d. 376, and Teutonic 
settlements took place within the empire about this time, 
these movements being caused by the incursions of the 
Huns into Germany. 

The West Goths sacked Rome under Alaric in a.d. 410. The 
rise of a Gothic kingdom took place in Spain and Southern 
Gaul. The defeat of Attila, king of the Huns, at the battle of 
Chalons, a.d. 45 1, aids in consolidatingChristianity in Europe. 

Note. — One style evolves from any other so gradually, 
that it is impossible to say exactly where the one ended and 
the next began. This gradual growth characterizes progress 
in other departments as well as Architecture. Each age 
feels its way towards the expression of its own ideals, 
modifying the art of the past to meet the fresh conditions 
under which it lives. The reign of Gregory the Great 
(a.d. 590 to A.D. 603) is that in which the Latin language 
and Roman architecture in its latest forms ceased to exist 
in this distinctive type of Early Christian architecture. 


For the next two centuries architecture was practically 
at a standstill in Europe, at the end of which period the 
old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside, 
and the later Romanesque architecture was gradually 


Naturally little money was at the command of the early 
Christians ; therefore, where possible, they adapted the 
ancient basilicas, which were ready to their hand, for their 
own places of worship ; and in cases where they erected 
new ones, such were generally built from the remains of 
ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity ; and were often 
situated over the entrances to their former hiding-places or 
crypts. Thus in these early Christian basilicas in Rome 
we find columns with various ancient capitals, with shafts 
of various lengths, with or without bases, and made up 
by the addition of new pieces of stone, or even by double 

On this account, although extremely interesting from an 
archaeological point of view, the buildings can hardly have, 
in the architect's mind at least, the value for study, which 
a new manner in architecture, arising from new structural 
necessities, is certain to possess. 

The earlier basilicas had their columns closely spaced, 
and were crowned with the entablature which supported the 
main wall, on which rested the wooden roof (No. 46). 

As the arch came more into general use these columns 
could be spaced further apart, being connected by semi- 
circular arches (No. 45). 

The architectural character is impressive and dignified ; 
the apparent size of the basilicas is increased by the long 
perspective of the columns, and the comparative lowness of 
the interiors in proportion to their length. 




The remarkable manner in which the basiHcas, or Roman 
halls of justice, lent themselves to the purpose and uses of the 
early Christians, made them the stepping-stones from the 
Classic of pre-Christian times to the Gothic architecture of 
the Middle Ages, which thus may be said to commence with 
these basilican churches. 

It should here be mentioned, however, that some authori- 
ties believe the early Christian churches to have grown 
out of the Roman dwelling-house, where at first the com- 
munity were in the habit of assembling, or from the class- 
room where philosophers used to teach. 

How suitable the Roman basilica was for Christian wor- 
ship is easily seen from the plan of the well-preserved 
example of St. Clemente at Rome (Nos. 42 and 43). 

The bishop took the place formerly occupied by the 
"praetor," or " questor," until in subsequent ages the 
seat was moved to the side, becoming the bishop's throne. 

The presbyters, or members of council of the early 
Church, took the seats on either side of the bishop formerly 
occupied by the assessors. The apse became the chancel, 
whose form remained circular-ended in North Europe. 

The altar in front of the apse, formerly used by the 
Romans for the pouring out of libations, or sacrifices to their 
gods, was now used for the celebration of Christian rites 
(No. 44). A baldachino, or canopy, was erected over the 
altar, which after a time was moved back, and placed against 
the east wall of the apse. 

A choir was introduced, abutting into the nave (No. 43). 
It was inclosed by low screen walls, or " cancelli " (from 
which the word chancel is derived), and provided with 
two pulpits, or " ambos," from one of which the gospel was 
read, and from the other the epistle (No. 44). 

A transept, called the "bema," or "presbytery," which 
existed in a modified form in the basilicas themselves, was 
occasionally introduced, converting the plan into a Latin 



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cross, of which the nave was the long arm. Some consider, 
however, that this cruciform ground plan was derived from 
the buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as 
ihe age of Constantine. 

In a few examples, galleries, sometimes called "tribunes," 
were introduced for women. Where none existed, the 
women were seated on one side of the nave and the men on 
ihe other. These Basilican churches have usually three 
aisles, but St. Paul's, St. Peter's, and St. John Lateran 
have five aisles. St. Agnes and St. Lorenzo have their 
side aisles in two heights. The aisles are generally half 
the width of the nave, or central aisle, the latter being lit 
by a clerestory of small windows. 

Among the glories of these ancient buildings are the 
mosaics. The apse was generally vaulted with a semi-dome 
(No. 44), and covered with mosaics, having a central figure of 
Christ seated in glory relieved against a gold background. 

•' Below was all mosaic choicely planned, 
With cycles of the human tale." 

The pavements of marble and mosaic are extremely fine 
and characteristic, as at St. Clemente. These pavements 
were made out of the abundant store of ancient marbles 
existing in Rome. Slices of old columns formed the centres, 
round which bands of geometrical inlay were twisted in 
intricate designs. 

The grand decorative effect of these accessories must not 
be forgotten in criticising the buildings of this style. 

Externally the building was approached through an 
'• atrium," or fore-court, probably derived from the Roman 
'' forum ; " the covered portion next the church was the 
'• narthex," or place for penitents (No. 43). In the centre of 
the atrium stood a fountain or well, used by the pilgrims to 
wash their hands before entering the holy place, a custom 
which survives in an altered form, as when Catholics dip 
their fingers into the stoop, or holy- water basin, placed against 
the entrance of a church. 

The atrium survived through the Gothic ages in England, 
but was placed, as will be seen, in a different position, and 
called the " cloisters." 


Remains. — The old Basilica of St. Peter's had a 

"transept," or " bema," 55 feet wide, and of the height of 
the nave (113 feet). Five arches, the centre called the 
arch of triumph, gave access from the body of the church. 
At the end was a semicircular apse on a raised floor, in the 
centre of the back wall of which was the Pope's seat. The 
priest stood behind the altar, and thus the orientation was 
the reverse of the English practice. 

Other examples : 

There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome, 
mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. 
The interior of these basilicas is impressive and severe, the 
repetition of the long rows of columns being grand in the 
extreme, as in the interior view of St. Paul's (No. 45), and 
S. Maria Maggiore (No. 46). 

There are also important reniains at Ravenna, a city well 
situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople, and at 
one time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. The 
principal building is the octagonal church of San Vitale 
(see page 94), which has been included in the Byzantine 

At Torcello, near Venice, the foundations of the original 
bishop's throne, surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse, 
still exists, giving one a good idea of the Early Christian 


are another description of building met with in Early 
Christian architecture. They were originally used only for 
the sacrament of baptism ; hence the name " Baptistery." 
The form was derived from the Roman circular temples 
and tombs, already described. Until the end of the sixth 
century a.d. the baptistery appears to have been a distinct 
building ; but after this period the font came to be placed 
in the vestibule of the church. There was generally one 
baptistery in each city, as at Ravenna and Florence, and it 
was as a rule a detached building, but usually adjoined the 
atrium or fore-court. 

In adopting the Roman tombs as their models for these 

- .2 

< s 




buildings, the early Christians moditicd them to some 
extent, e.g., in the Pantheon, and elsewhere, the columns 
were not used internally for constructive purposes, but 
simply for decoration. The early Christians, however, 
su[)ported the walls carrying their domes by means of 
columns used constructively. It will be seen that to cover 
a large area with one dome was difficult, and if we imagine 
the addition of an aisle in one storey round a moderate-sized 
circular tomb, the inner walls being replaced by columns 
in the lower half, we shall arrive at just such a building as 
these early baptisteries (No. 47). 

Examples in and near Rome. 

The Baptistery of Constantine at Rome is octago- 
nal, the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns 
two storeys in height. 

St. Stephano Rotundo (sixth century a.d.) (No. 47) 
is 210 feet in diameter, and has its roof supported on two 
circular rings of columns, all taken from older buildings. 

The Baptistery of St. Agnese, between Naples and 
Salerno, is circular ; it has two rows of columns, is 80 feet 
in diameter, and has a central elliptical dome. This build- 
ing is vaulted and covered with a wooden roof, and it appears 
that this is the first time that the latter is introduced in con- 
junction with the former, as the Roman architects always 
allowed the stone vault to show externally (ex. the Pan- 
theon). In the case of St. Agnese, however, the vault is 
merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external 
wooden roof. This is similar to the practice of Gothic 
architects, who, in the medicxval period, covered the stone 
vaults of their churches with timber roofs. 


.\. Plan. — The early Christians adopted the Basilican 
form for their churches (Nos. 42, 43). See also page 83. 

Besides the basilicas, the halls, baths, dwelling-houses, 
and even the pagan temples were used by the Christians 
for places of worship. 

An isolated circular church (see above), generally attached 


to the chief BasiUca (or cathedral), was used as a baptis- 

B. Walls were still constructed according to the Roman 
methods, which, however, became more and more debased 
as time went on. Rubble or concrete walling was used, 
faced with plaster, brick, or stone ; mosaic was used internally, 
and sometimes externally on the west fa(^-ades for decorative 

c. Openings. — In regard to the doors and windows, we 
find they were generally arched, the use of the lintel being 
dispensed with. The form of the arch was semicircular, and 
the window openings were small ; the aisles were lighted 
by windows in the aisle wall, and the nave by clerestory 
windows, a feature to be further developed in the later Gothic 
architecture. (See Nos. 42, 45.) 

D. Roofs. — Wooden roofs (Nos. 42, 44, 45) covered the 
central nave, a simple form of construction such as King 
and Queen post trusses being employed. Fergusson con- 
siders that these roofs were ceiled in some ornamental 
manner, the decoration of a visible framework being of a 
later date, as at S. Miniato, Florence (No. 62). The side 
aisles in the later basilica churches were occasionally vaulted, 

' In later Romanesque and Gothic periods, these early baptisteries, 
themselves founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs, were 
treated as follows in the different European countries : 

In Italy, where the churches are not derived from a combination of 
a circular eastern church with a western rectangular nave, as in France, 
but are direct copies of the Roman basilica ; we find that the circular 
Roman building develops into a baptistery, which always stands apart, 
not becoming part of the church. 

In France, circular churches were built to stand alone, and when 
it was necessary to enlarge them, the circular building was retained as 
the sanctuary or choir, and a straight lined nave was added for the use 
of the people. Thus the circular church originated the apsidal choir of 
later times. 

In Germany, the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church, 
and ibrmed a western apse. The Germans also built circular churches, 
and then added choirs for the priests, that they might pray apart from 
the people. 

In England, the Romanesque and Gothic builders generally pre- 
ferred a square east end, except where French influence made itself felt, 
as at Westminster. Circular churches were erected, as the Temple 
Church, London, but they were few in number, and due to the Knights 
Templars, being built as copies of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 





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and the apse was usually domed and lined with mosaic (Nos. 

44, 45> 46). 

K. Columns are the most interesting feature of \vhat we 
may call the Basilica style; they were mostly fragments of 
earlier Roman buildings which had either fallen into ruins 
or were destroyed for the purpose. For this reason on visit- 
ing an interior you will often find them of different design, 
size, and treatment (No. 47). It was natural that the early 
Christian builders, not being good craftsmen themselves, 
should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments 
which were read)' 10 hand, and which had been left by the 
pagan Roman. The rich and grandiose effect which is the 
character of these buildings was thus easily obtained, but 
often at the expense of fitness in the details of the design. 

I'. Mouldings are coarse variations of Roman types, 
and the carving is of the rudest kind, though rich in general 
effect. Technique, or the power of handling tools, had been 
gradually declining since the time of the Greeks, and the 
progressive decay continued. 

Enrichments were in low relief, and incised upon mould- 
ings, and the acanthus leaf, although copied still from the 
antique, became more conventional in form. 

G. Decoration. — The introduction of much colour into 
interiors is a feature of the period. 

The apse, as has been mentioned, w^as domed and lined 
with mosaic, the subject generally being Christ surrounded 
by angels and saints (No. 44). 

The arch of triumph preceding the apse is occupied with 

appropriate subjects, and long friezes of figures line the 

j wall above the nave arcades. The wall spaces between the 

I clerestory windows have subjects drawn from Christian 

' history or doctrine (Nos. 44, 45, 46). 

The figures are treated in strong colours on a gold back- 
ground. The design is bold and simple, both in form and 
I draperies, and an earnest and solemn expression, fitting well 
j the position they occupy, characterizes the groups. The 
I method of execution is coarse and large, and no attempt is 
j made at neatness of joint or regularity of bedding. The 
i interiors, while bright and free from gloom, are, by the aid 
i of these mosaics, full of solemnity. 


It will be seen that besides having regard to the 
internal effect of the walls, thus coloured with mosaics, 
they also employed pavements of coloured marbles, laid 
out in geometrical patterns, adding greatly to the rich effect 
of their interiors. These pavements were formed largely of 
slices from the old Roman porphyry columns, which were 
worked into designs by connecting bands of geometrical 
inlay on a field of white marble. A good idea of this work, 
called " opus Alexandrinum," may be seen in the chancel 
of Westminster Abbey. 

Of a finer and more delicate expression was the glass 
mosaic used to decorate the ambos, screens, and episcopal 
chairs. Ex. : the furniture of the church of San Clemente 
at Rome (No. 44). 


Hubsch, " Monuments de I'architecture Chretiennedepuis 

Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne." 
Bunsen's " Christian Basilicas of Rome." 
Prof. Baldwin Brown's " From Schola to Cathedral." 
" Hypatia," by Charles Kingsley (historical novel dealing 

with the period). 


" So fair a church as this had \ enice none : 

The walls were of discolored Jasper stone 

Wherein was Christos carved ; and overhead 

A lively vine of green sea agate spread."- — CHAUCER. 


i. Geographical. — -Geographically speaking, Constanti- 
' nople occupies the finest site in Europe, standing on a 
bold peninsula between the Sea of Marmora and the 
curved inlet called the "Golden Horn."' It is called 
" Rome " by the Turks of Asia, and, like the other Rome in 
Italy, it rests on seven hills. It occupies one of the most 
important commercial sites on the globe, standing at the 
intersection of the two great highways of commerce — 
the water high-road from the Black Sea into the Mediter- 
ranean, and the land high-road from Asia into Europe ; 
a position which, in the times of which we are writing, gave 
it power and influence. 

ii. Geological. — As far as possible the materials upon 
the spot had to be employed. The cupola of Santa Sophia 
is of pumice and bricks from the island of Rhodes. The 
walling consists of brick, faced with marble. The bulk of 
the marble used in Santa Sophia and in Constantinople 
generally, is local as regards the Mediterranean. 

A writer on the subject, Mr. Brindley, is of opinion that 
quite seventy-five per cent, of the coloured marble used in 
Santa Sophia, and the other churches and mosques in Con- 
stantinople, is Thessalian green (Verde Antico). He sup- 
poses that the architect was influenced by the kind of column 
likely to be at once obtainable, as the quarries were situated 
in different parts of the empire, and were worked by convict 


labour, the monolith columns being worked in groups of 
sizes such as the quarry could produce. 

iii. Climate. — Being further east than Rome, and having 
a hotter climate, Oriental customs in building had to be 
assimilated by the Romans, on settling at Constantinople. 

iv. Religion. — It was Constantine who first made 
Christianity the state religion. The political division that 
came to pass between east and west was followed by a 
separation of churches also. The east declined to go with 
the west in adding to a creed (the Filioque controversy) 
and still claims to be the orthodox church. The iconoclastic 
movement ended in the admission of painted figures in the 
decoration of churches, but all sculptured statues are ex- 
cluded. These and other points of ritual difference have 
vitally affected eastern church architecture. 

V. Social and Political. — The geographical position of 
Constantinople insures the presence of a large trading com- 
munity. Constantine removed the capital there from Rome 
in A.D. 323. His system of government was an expansion 
of the despotic methods introduced by Diocletian. After 
his death rival emperors troubled the state, and disputes in 
the church were rife — the Council of Nice in a.d. 325 was the 
first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. 
During the eighth and ninth centuries the iconoclastic move- 
ment was in force. The eastern emperors lost all i)ower in 
Italy, by endeavouring to force their policy in this matter 
upon the west. By the election of Charlemagne, chosen 
Emperor of the West in a.d. 800, the Roman empire was 
finally divided. 

vi. Historical.— Byzantium was a Greek colony in the 
fourth century B.C. Byzantine architecture is that which was 
developed at Byzantium, or Constantinople, on the removal 
of the capital of the Roman Empire to that city, in the 
fourth century a.d. by Constantine. This style was carried 
on until the city fell into the hands of the Turks in 1453, 
when it became the capital of the Ottoman empire. During 
thereignof Justinian (a.d. 5 27-565), who erected Santa Sophia 
at Constantinople, the whole of Italy was recovered to the 
Eastern Empire, accounting for the style of some oi the 
buildings in Italy which we shall notice. 





Thus the Byzantine style includes not only the style deve- 
lojied in Byzantium itself, but also those buildings which 
were erected elsewhere under her influence, the chief of 
which we shall notice in this section. After the defeat of 
rhc Visigoths, Italy was placed under the rule of a delegate 
of the Byzantine Emperor, who had his seat at Ravenna, 
a city which during this period rivalled Rome in importance, 
and where consec^uently we find some important examples 
of the style. 


The change from the old Roman forms was of course 
gradual, but in the course of 200 years the East asserted 
herself, and under Justinian, in the sixth centur}', the Church 
of Santa Sophia (Nos. 48, 49, and 50) was erected, and 
remains the greatest achievement of the style — being per- 
haps the most satisfactory of all domed interiors. 

The general architectural character depends on the 
development of the dome, in contrast with the Romanesque 
style, which we shall see developed the vault in Western and 
Northern iMjrope. 

The dome is the prevailing motif ox idea of Byzantine 
architecture, and had been a traditional feature in the old 
architecture of the East. M. Choisy, in his "Art de Batir 
chez les Byzantins," traces the influence of this Oriental 
tradition on Greek architecture, to show how from this fusion 
the later imperial architecture proceeded. The classic 
orders are dispensed with, and the arches (semicircular) 
rest directly on columns. In the interiors, carving and 
sculpture give way to grand decorative work in coloured 
mosaic on a background of massive gold, covering the whole 
surface of the wall. 

In the exteriors (Nos. 50 and 53) the grouping of the 
smaller domes round the larger central one was very effective, 
one of the most remarkable peculiarities of these churches 
being that the tunnel vault retains its form externally, as 
in the case of a dome (No. 50). In no style does the 
elevation so closely correspond with the section, as in the 


Byzantine. An attempt was made to render the rough brick 
exteriors of Roman times more pleasing, by the use of 
bands and reheving arches of an ornamental character. 

Byzantine art was carried westward by traders through 
the needs of commerce, and we find at St. Mark's, Venice, 
at St. Vitale, Ravenna, at St. Front Perigueux, France, 
and elsewhere, Byzantine influences at work, which account 
for, and largely direct, the architecture of districts. 


Santa Sophia at Constantinople 

(Nos. 48, 49, 50) was built by order of Justinian in a.d. 
532-537, the architects being Anthemius of Tralles and 
Isodorus of Miletus. 

The plan (No. 48) consists of a central space bounded 
by four massive piers, 25 feet square, connected by semi- 
circular arches, and supporting a dome of 106 feet in 
diameter, rising 180 feet above the pavement. The base of 
this dome is pierced by forty small windows, lighting the 
centre area (No. 49). Against the eastern and western 
arches of the dome abut half-domes; thus a long oval 
interior is formed. Within the depth of the south and north 
arches are galleries in two storeys, the upper being for 
women. In the spandrel walls, which stand up on the front 
line of the gallery arcades, are ranged tiers of narrow win- 
dows giving additional lighting to the interior (No. 49). 
The two storfeys of arcaded galleries, the numerous small 
windows, all these in the relation of their parts, give scale 
to the interior. The abutment of these side arches of the 
dome, not having half-domes resting against them, is taken 
by huge external buttresses. Out of these half-domes groW' 
smaller semi-domes. The floor space is made rectangular 
by the angles being filled in with domes. 

"Simple as is the primary ideal, the actual effect is one 
of great intricacy, and of continuous gradation of parts, 
from the small arcades up to the stupendous dome, which 
hangs, with little apparent support, like a vast bubble over 
the centre, or as Procopius, who witnessed its erection, 



!s two Storeys in height, the lower storey being a decagon 
itaining a cruciform crypt. It is 45 feet in diameter; 
h face is pierced with a niche. Traces remain of an 
Lxiernal arcade round the lower portion, standing on the 
ilciagonal basement. The roof consists of one slab of 
atone, hollowed out in the form of a flat dome, 35 feet 

51. St. Mark's, Venice. Plan. 

in diameter, and round the edge of this block are stone 
handles, originally used to place this immense covering in 
position. The ashes of the founder were placed in an urn 
on the top of the covering. 

St. Mark's at Venice 

(Nos. 51, 52, 53) was erected A.D. 977-1071. Venice was 
by situation the connecting link between the Byzantine and 
Franconian empires, and the great depot of the tratific 
between the East and West. This influence is shown in her 


The plan of St. Mark's (No. 51) is in the form of a 
Greek cross, of equal arms, covered by a dome in the centre 
(42 feet diameter), and one over each arm of the cross. 
It is derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at 
Constantinople (the second type of Byzantine plan), which 
was Dulled down by Mahomet II. in the fifteenth century. 
i„jA: ,pMnt in the plan is that the square piers, which carry 
the dome, are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels ; 
the gallery arcade connects the piers on either side, the 
depth of the gallery being that of the pier. 

Notice the vestibules filling out the western arm of the 
cross to a square. 

The interior (No. 52) is rich with coloured marbles 
casing the lower part of the walls ; above, and extending in 
one great surface over vault and dome, is a lining of richly 
coloured glass mosaic, in which are worked figures of saints 
mingled with scenes from their lives, set off by a broad back- 
ground of gold. Mosaic, in fact, is the real and essential 
decoration of the church, to which all architectural detail is 

The exterior fa(;ade (No. 53) has five entrances enriched 
with shafts of many-coloured marbles, brought from Alex- 
andria, and the ruined cities of the East, forming a rich 
and beautiful portal. Mosaic panels also serve to enrich 
with colour the spandrels of the arches. It must be re- 
membered that this and the external domes are a later casing 
upon the original exterior of the usual Byzantine type. 

Note. — " The effects of St. Mark's depend not only upon 
the most delicate sculpture in every part, but, as we 
have just stated, eminently on its colour also, and that 
the most subtle, variable, inexpressible colour in the 
world — the colour of glass, of transparent alabaster, of 
polished marble, and of lustrous gold." — Ruskin. 


A. The plans of Byzantine churches are all distinguished 
by a great central square space covered with a dome, sup- 
ported by means of pendentives, clearly shown in No. 49. 


On each side extend short arms, forming a Greek cross on 
plan, which with the narthex and side galleries make the 
'plan nearly square. The narthex was placed within the 
main walls. 

Compare : An Early Christian 

A Byzantine Church. Basilica. 

The eye is drawn to tlie The form compels us to look 

centre of the building to the towards the apsidal termina- 

L;rcat central dome. tion. 

The leading thought is \ er- The leading idea is hori- 

Lical by the grouping of domes zontal by a long perspective of 

round a principal central dome. columns. 

c. Walls. — In general we find that all the oriental love 
of magnificence was developed internally, while externally 
the buildings are comparatively plain. Internally, marble 
casing and mosaic were applied to the walls, often con- 
structed of brick. Therefore a flat treatment and absence 
of mouldings prevailed. Externally the facade is some- 
I limes relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick, in 
i various colours. 

c. Openings. — Doors and windows are semicircular 
headed, but segmental and horse-shoe arched openings are 
sometimes met with. 

The windows are small and grouped together. The 
universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches, and 
the consequent exclusion of painted glass, rendered the use 
of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed 
quite inadmissible, and in such a climate very much smaller 
openings sufficed to admit all the light that was required. 
Tracery was, in consequence, practically non-existent as a 
northern architect would understand it. 

The churches depend largely for light on the ring of 
windows at the base of the dome, or in the " drum," or 
circular base on which the dome is raised, and upon openings 
grouped in the gable ends. 

Such windows, grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch 
beneath the dome,areagreat feature in the style (Nos. 49,52). 

D. Roofs. -The method of covering these buildings con- 
sisted of a series of domes formed in brick, stone, or concrete, 
with frequently no further external covering. In S. Sophia 



the vaults are covered with sheets of lead, a quarter of an inch 
thick, fastened to wood laths, resting on the vaults without 
any wood roofing. Hollow earthenware was used in order 
to reduce the thrust on the supporting walls. 

A good idea of a Byzantine dome (No. 49) is obtained 
by halving an orange, cutting off four slices, each at right 
angles to the last, to represent the four arches ; scoop out 
the interior ; then the portion above the crown of these 
semicircles is the dome, and the intervening triangles 
are the pendentives. At first the domes were very flat; 
in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder. 

E. Columns were often, in the earlier buildings, brought 
from more ancient structures. These were naturally not so 
numerous in the East, as in the neighbourhood of Rome, 
consequently the supply was sooner exhausted; and thus 
an incentive to design fresh ones was provided. Capitals 
generally took the form shown in the illustration (No. 54), 
and consisted in the lower portion of a cube block with 
rounded corners ; over this was placed a deep abacus, or 
block, representing the expiring classic architrave, and 
which aided in supporting the springing of the arch, naturally 
larger in area than the shaft of the column. 

An altered shape of capital was advisable, as an arch 
instead of a beam had to be supported, for which a convex 
form was better adapted. The surfaces of these capitals 
were carved with incised foliage of sharp outline, having 
drilled eyes as a relief (No. 54). 

Columns were always subordinate features, and often only 
introduced to support galleries, etc., the massive piers alone 
supporting the superstructure. 

F. Mouldings. — Internally these were subordinate to 
the decorative treatment in marbles and mosaic. Flat splays, 
enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation, are used. 
Externally the simple treatment of the elevations in flat 
expanses of brickwork, etc., did not leave the same scope 
for mouldings as in other styles. 

G. Decoration is the most interesting feature in the style ; 
the walls being lined with costly marbles, and with figures in 
glass mosaic, in contrast to the painted frescoes which were 
more generally adopted in western Romanesque churches. 


Mosaic was used in a broad way as a complete lining to 
a rough carcase. Architectural lines are replaced by de- 
corative bands in the mosaic, worked on rounded angles. 
One surface melts into another as the mosaic sheet creeps 
from wall, arch, and pendentive up to the dome. The gold 
of the background is carried into the figures, thus unity of 
surface is always maintained. 

In carving, Greek, rather than Roman precedent, was 
followed. It was executed in low relief, and effect was 
obtained by sinking portions only of the surfaces. In fact, 
the drill instead of the chisel was adopted by the Byzan- 
tine masons, and is responsible for the character of the 
carving. The acanthus leaf, deeply channelled and adapted 
from Roman architecture, became more conventional. 

The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as com- 
pared with the classical, is that the pattern is incised instead 
of seeming to be applied. The surface always remained 
flat, the pattern being cut into it without breaking its outline. 

Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine 
ornamentation. This is accounted for by the fact that 
Constantinople was a Greek city, and in close contact with 
the East. 

Note. — A good general idea of the exterior of a church 
in this style is to,^ gained from the Greek Church 
in the Moscpiv'^Road, Bayswater, erected by Gilbert 
Scott. The 'mosaics and casts in the South Kensington 
Museum should also be inspected. 


Didron's " Christian Iconography." 

Salzenberg's " Byzantine Architecture." 

Texier and Pullan's " Byzantine Architecture." 

"L'Art de Batir chezlesByzantins," by M. AugusteChoisy. 

"Sancta Sophia; a Study of Byzantine Building," by 

W. R. Lethaby and Harold Swainson. 
Also the great work on St. Mark's by Ongania. 
"Count Robert of Paris," by Sir W. Scott. (Historical 





i. Geographical. — The style which grew up on the 
decay of the Roman empire, and which we know as 
Romanesque, was carried on throughout practically the 
whole of the Western empire — that is, in those countries 
which had been directly under the rule of Rome. The 
position of each country will be slightly touched upon under 
its own heading. 

ii. Geological. — In these early times a rough use of the 
material at hand characterizes the style in each country, and 
will be referred to under the same. 

iii. Climate. — Local styles were favoured by the varia- 
tions of climate north and south of the Alps. Refer to Rome 
in Classic and France and Germany in Romanesque sections. 

iv. Religion. — The Christian Church was striving to 
extend its boundaries in Northern Europe. It represented 
the civilizing and educating agency of the age. The erec- 
tion of a church was often the foundation of a city. The 
papacy had been rising to great power and influence, and, 
directed with great skill, it rivalled or controlled such civil 
government as existed. As East and West drifted apart 
their architecture developed on opposing lines. Work done 
in Western Europe under Eastern influence has to be classed 
as Byzantine. The West looked to Rome at first until each 

* Before treating of the development of each division of the style 
peculiar to each country, an outline sketch is given of the style in general. 


country developed its own style. Religious enthusiasm 
prevailed, and was manifested in magnificent edifices. As 
evidencing the same zeal we should note that when the Turks 
overran Palestine, the loss of the Holy Places brought on the 
long warfare between the Christians of the West and the Ma- 
hometans of the East, known as the Crusades (1096-1270). 

V. Social and Political. — The system of feudal tenure, 
or the holding of land on condition of military service, was 
growing up, and caused important changes in the social and 
])olitical organization of states. While through its opera- 
tion the class of actual slaves died out, still the poorer free- 
men gradually came to be serfs, bound to the land and 
})assing with it, on a change of ownership. 

The growth of the towns as civilization advanced is notice- 
able, and the privileges which they acquired, amounting 
almost to independence, rapidly gave them importance. 

Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people 
during this period barbarous, and skill in craftsmanship was 
at the lowest ebb. Christianity and civilization gradually 
extended from southern to western Europe. The clergy — 
the scholars of the period — directed the building of the 
churches, while the influence of the freemasons produced 
important results. 

vi. Historical. — In the year a.d. 799 the Roman 
Empire in the West practically passed from the hands of 
the Romans, by the election of the first Prankish king, 
Charlemagne, whose election is a convenient date to mark 
the end of the Roman Empire as such. Till the time of 
Charlemagne very little building was done, but he in a great 
measure restored the arts and civilization to Western Europe, 
before his death in a.d. 814, 

After the year a.d. iooo, buildings sprang up in all parts, 
with many local peculiarities, which we shall notice under 
each country ; but the change was, as ever, slow ; tradi- 
tional forms were firstly transformed in general design and 
detail, and then new forms created. 

Nearly all the nations of Europe had at this time come 
into existence ; the states of Europe, including France, 
Germany, and Spain, etc., were growing up, and tending to 
set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which now 


had become only a title. In northern Europe, Denmark, 
Sweden, and Norway were distinct kingdoms, and England 
had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the 
end of the eleventh century. 


The term Romanesque may be said to include all 
those phases of architecture, which were more or less based 
on Roman work, and which were being carried out, in a 
rough and ready way, in various parts of Europe, from the 
departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the 
pointed arch in the thirteenth century. Each country is 
described under its own heading. 

The general architectural character is sober and dignified, 
while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the 
towers, and projection of the transepts and choir. 

3. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). 


A. Plans. — In church architecture further developments 
from the type of the Early Christian basilica took place. 
Transepts were usually added, and the chancel prolonged 
further east than in the basilicas, the church partaking more 
and more of a fully-developed cross on plan, as at S. Michele 
at Pavia (Nos. 55, 56, 57). The transepts were the same 
breadth as the nave, which was usually twice the width of 
the aisles. 

The choir was raised considerably by steps ; under it was 
the crypt, where the saints and martyrs were buried, this por- 
tion being supported on cross vaults as at S. Miniato, Florence 
(No. 62). In later periods the aisles were continued round 
the choir. 

The cloisters in connection with the churches are often 
of great beauty and elaborately carved. 

The towers are special features, and of great prominence 
in the design, as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne 
(No. 67). They are either square, octagonal, or circular, 
with well-marked storeys, having windows to each. The 



west and east end, and the crossing of nave and transepts 
are all favourite positions. 

I',. Walls. — Roman work and precedent, of course, in- 
ifluenced all constructive art in Europe, although technical 
skill was at a very low ebb during this period. Walls were 
in general coarsely built. In the exterior are pilaster strips 
of slight projection, connected at the top by horizontal 
mouldings, or by a row of semicircular arches resting on 

Plan. Section. 

55, 56. St. Michele, Pavia. 

a corbel table projecting from the wall. Semicircular 
arches, resting on rudely formed capitals, also occur. Other 
peculiarities are noted under each country. 

c. Openings. — The door and window openings are very 
characteristic. The principle upon which the jambs were 
formed was in receding planes, or rectangular recesses, in 
which were placed circular columns or shafts (No. 58). A 
continuous abacus often runs over these columns, and the 
profile of the jamb is carried round the semicircular portion 
of the arch, in southern examples. 


The principal doorways are in general placed in the 

Note. — The characteristic rose, or wheel, window occurred 
over the principal door of the church in the west 
front, as at Mey Church, Oxon (No. 75). Also in 
Southern Italian examples, as at Palermo. 

D. Roofs. — The introduction of vaulting, in the second 
half of the eleventh century, was a great advance in con- 
struction over the flat wooden roof. 

The form of arch universally employed was semicircular, 
often raised above the semicircle, i.e. stilted (No. 74). 

In early buildings rib mouldings were used in the vault- 
ing (No. 59). These ribs were at first plain, and afterwards 
moulded in a simple manner. Intersecting barrel vaults 
(No. 85) are common, and the difficulty in constructing 
these in oblong bays, led to the use of pointed arches in 
later times. 

E. Columns. — The shafts of the columns have a variety 
of treatment; flutings, — vertical, spiral, or in trellis work form, 
— are used. 

The capital in early times is of a cubiform shape, as in 
St. John's Chapel in the Tower of London (No. 74), with 
lower corners rounded off and no carving. In later times it 
becomes richly carved and scolloped. 

In some cases the scroll of the ancient Ionic cap is shown 
— as in the third column from the right in St. John's Chapel, 
Tower of London (No. 74), where classic influence is 

F. Mouldings are often carved elaborately, as will be 
seen in noticing English Romanesque or Norman archi- 

The abacus over the capital (No. 74) is always distinc- 
tive in form ; it is higher, but projects less than in the 
classical style, and is moulded with alternate fillets and 

The base to the column (No. 74) is generally an adapta- 
tion of the old classical form, or Attic base, resting on a 
square plinth, at the angles of which flowers or animals are 
occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part. The lower 
moulding often overhangs the plinth. 



t- ^p\/^-nQr4 

Sc^JL^ .—. . 1 . _^ — --L 



c. Decoration. — In regard to carving and ornaments 
notice that many tj-pes are borrowed from the vegetable 
and animal kingdom, and treated in a conventional way, 
often but rudely carved. For interiors fresco is more 




59. Comparison of Rih Arches. 

common than mosaic, which required great technical skill. 

Early stained glass is influenced by Byzantine mosaic. 

Note. — The above are the principal characteristics of the 
style as a whole. Local infiuences of taste, of climate, of 
geographical atid geological formations must be looked to 
for the different characteristics in each country. These 
7vill be now briefly alhided to. 


ITALY (Central). 

" In Middle Rome there was in stone working 
The Church of Mary painted royally 
The chapels of it were some two or three 
In each of them her tabernacle was 
And a wide window of six feet in glass 
Coloured with all her works in red and gold." 



i. Geographical. — The boundaries of Central Italy, in 
this section, would include Florence and Pisa on the north 
and west, and extend to Naples on the south. Pisa, by 
position, was a maritime power, while Florence lay on the 
great route from south to north, commanding the passage 
of the Arno. 

ii. Geological. — Tuscany possesses greater mineral 
wealth than any other part of Italy. Building stone was 
abundant. The ordinary building materials of Rome were 
bricks, volcanic stone (tufa or peperino) on the spot, and 
Travertine stone from Tivoli, a few miles off. Marble was 
obtained from Carrara, or Paros and the other Greek isles. 

iii. Climate. — (See under Rome, page 51.) 

iv. Religion. — It was during this period that, although 
the Popes had no temporal dominions, they began to make 
their power felt in civil government, and the disputes with 
the emperors began. Gregory VII. rules that the clergy may 
not marry, and that no temporal prince shall bestow any 
ecclesiastical benefice. The struggles of the Guelphs and 
Ghibellines (see hereafter) are in large part the result. 

^ The style is divided into three — central, north, and south. The 
comparative table of the three together is given on page 116. 


V. Social and Political. — In Italy an artistic move- 
ment took place in the eleventh century, in which archi- 
tecture took the lead ; painting and sculpture being in a state 
of stagnation. The Tuscan towns were the principal scene 
of this movement. An industrial population gradually arose, 
commerce spread, independent views were acquired in active 
party conflict, and education became more enlightened. 

vi. Historical. — x'Vt the commencement of the eleventh 
rentury, Pisa was the great commercial and naval power in 
the Mediterranean, and a rival of Venice and Genoa. 
Pisa took the lead in the wars against the infidels, de- 
feated the Saracens in 1025, 1030, and 1089 at Tunis. The 
trade of Pisa, in the twelfth century, extended over the 
entire Mediterranean. Their policy was Ghibelline. They 
were defeated by Genoa, 1284, which led to their decline, 
'i'he rise of Florence dates from 11 25, when, Fiesole being 
destroyed, its inhabitants moved there. In the following cen- 
tury its growing commerce causes it to rival Pisa. Florence, 
though divided in policy, favoured the Guelphs. 

Lucca was an important city at this period, being also 
a republic. It was rent by the feuds of the two parties. Its 
architecture is influenced by that of Pisa. 



Newideas rarelyfound. Con- The principal aim is perfec- 
structive boldness not sought tion in the construction of 
after, less departure being made vaulting, which influences the 
from the ancient Basilica type. whole design — as in Normandy 
The Italians have always pos- and the Rhine provinces, where 
sessed a greater capacity for vaulting was now being de- 
beauty in detail, than for deve- veloped. 
loping a bold and novel con- 
struction into a complete style. 


The Cathedral of Pisa (No. 60) (a.d. 1063-1092) 
is a fine example. The interior, with rows of columns 
and the fiat ceiling, recalls the Basilica (No. 61). 


The cathedral has transepts with a segmental apse at 
each end, which is an advance on the Basilica plan. The side 
aisles, externally, have .blind arches running all round, built 
in stripes of red and white marble. 

The west facade has small open pillar arcades, one above 
the other, producing a fine etTect (No. 60). 

But it will be seen that the architectural character of the 
church has not the promise of logical development into a 
style, that a northern example possesses. It depends for artistic 
effect upon the beauty and interest of its ornamental features. 

The Leaning Tower at Pisa (No. 60) (a.d. 1172), 
which is circular on plan, consists of storeys of arcades one 
above the other. The tower leans one in twelve, and is 
capped by a small semicircular tower, 27 feet in height, 
in which are placed the bells. Total height is 183 feet. 
The foundations gave way during the building, and the 
cornice overhangs the base by 13 feet. 

The Baptistery at Pisa(No.6o), designed by DiotiSalvi in 
A.D. 1 1 53, is circular on plan, 1 29 feet in diameter. It is also 
entirely of marble, surrounded on the lower storey by half 
columns, connected by semicircular arches ; above isagallery 
in two heights, supported on smaller detached shafts. It was 
not completed till a.d. 1278, and has Gothic additions of the 
fourteenth century, in consequence of which it is not easy 
to ascertain what the original external design really was. 
Compare with the church of S. Donato, at Zara in Dalmatia, 
ninth century. 

The dome is 60 feet in diameter, and is supported on four 
piers and eight columns. It is a cone in shape, the top 
appears above the external dome in a rather singular way. 
If it had an internal cupola it would resemble the scheme of 
construction at St. Paul's. (See No. 154.) 

Other examples : 

San Michele, Lucca (a.d. 1188). This city belonged to 
Pisa when most of the churches were erected, hence 
their similarity to the Pisan work. 
Lucca Cathedral (a.d. 1288). 
The Cathedral at Pistoia, twelfth century a.d. 

All of these have more or less the same characteristics. 

Rome. In the Romanesque period, i.e. from a.d. 600 — 

6?. St. Miniato, at Florence, 



1 1 00, while the rest of Europe was slowly developing towards 
the Gothic style in architecture, Rome was continuing to 
use the remains of classic buildings, utilizing their columns 
and features in any new buildings. 

The Cloisters of S. John Lateran, twelfth century. 
'I'he small twisted columns are inlaid with mosaic in patterns 
of great beauty, evidencing the patient skill of the workmen. 
The cloisters are formed in square bays, the vault arches 
inclosing the arcades, in groups of five or more openings. 

Towers. In Rome during this period a series of towers 
were erected, which may be regarded as prototypes of the 
Mediaeval towers and spires. Their origin is not clear, as 
ihe custom of bell ringing was not then in existence. 

Florence. S. Miniato (No. 62) is a leading example of 
this central Italian style. The principal features are the 
division of the church into three main compartments 
longitudinally; and the raised eastern portion, under which 
is a crypt, open to the nave. The division of the church 
by piers seems as a prelude to the idea of vaulting in com- 
partments, and is an evident departure from the basilica 
type of long unbroken ranges of columns or arcades. The 
marble panelling, of exterior and interior, is to be noticed ; 
it was carried to a further extent in the next period. 

For the Comparative table of Italian Romanesque, see at 
the end of the sections (page 116). 


ITALY (North). 


i. GeographicaL — Milan, the capital of Lombardy, has 
ahvays had a high degree of prosperity, on account of its 
favourable situation in the centre of that state, and being 
near the beginning of several of the Alpine passes. 

The city is surrounded by rich plains. The cultivation 
of the mulberry (for the silkworm), and the vine, adds to 
the general prosperity of the district. 

ii. Geological. — Brick is the great building material of 
the plains of Lombardy, and the local architecture shows the 
influence of this material. 

iii. Climate. — North Italy has a climate more resem- 
bling that of the continent of Europe, i.e., climate of 
extremes. Milan is near enough to the Alps to experience 
cold in winter, while in summer the heat is often excessive. 

iv. Religion. — At the end of the fourth century, Theo- 
dosius, the great emperor, had been forced to do penance 
on account of a massacre in Thessalonica, St. Ambrose 
closing the doors of the church against him. This is an 
instance of the great power the church had acquired. 
St. Ambrose's fame and influence maintained the Ambrosian 
rite, which differed in some points of ritual, as in the non use 
of side altars, etc. (See under Milan Cathedral, later.) 

V. Social and Political. — The devastating wars in the 
North Italian plains leads to the gradual rise of the settle- 
ment of Venice, where the first form of government was 
republican. An oligarchy in which a Duke, or Doge, was 
invested with supreme authority gradually grew up. Italy 

^ S£iiiiliiiuiiiin|UiMtui|{jiiu|iiiiiri:ic' ^ 


itself consisted of a number of separate cities which were 
independent commonwealths. 

vi. Historical. — Venice from the first kept up a close 
alliance with Constantinople, by means of which the naval 
importance, and commerce, of the little state increased con- 
tinually. Especially after the eleventh century, by which 
time their commercial relations gradually extended to the 
niack Sea, and all the coast of the Mediterranean ; while the 
outlying possessions included Dalmatia, Croatia, and Istria. 
The invading barbarians who occupied the valleys of the 
Rhine and Po pursued a similar development in spite of the 
intervening Alps. Milan was as much German as Italian. 
In Italy, the old population, that had to be absorbed, 
eventually caused barbarian influence to wane, but until 
this had come to pass little building was done. The 
eleventh and twelfth centuries were the great building epoch 
in Lombardy. 



Galleries restricted to top of Fagades covered with gal- 

gables and of apses. The cha- leries (60). Marble facing 
racter of the style is more that carried to such an extent as to 
of stonework than marble, and almost form a style in marble. 
brick is also much used. Wide, Basilica type closely adhered 
flat, and severe fagades are to. Detail affected by classic 
typical, covering the whole remains and traditions. At 
church, withoutmarking in any Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly 
way the difference of nave and sculptured with figures existed, 
aisles. A rose window and a by whose study the Pisani were 
porch resting on lions are often influenced, 
thechiefrelief (No. 63). Detail 
shows the tendencies that led 
to Gothic. In sculpture, scenes 
as of hunting, etc., reflecting 
the life of the northern invaders 
are common, and in these a gro- 
tesque element is prominent. 



The Churches of 

St. Antonio at Piacenza, twelfth century a.d., 
St. Michele at Pavia, eleventh century a.d., 
St. Ambrogio at Milan, twelfth century a.d.., 
St. Zenone at Verona, nave, a.d. 1139, choir, thirteenth 
century a.d., 
may be mentioned as good examples. 

San Zenone at Verona (No. 63). Notice the arcaded 
corbies, under the slope of gable, which are so characteristic 
of the work in this district, also the great western rose, or 
wheel, window, and the projecting porch of the main door- 
way, with columns supporting arches, and resting on the 
backs of crouching lions. 

The origin of the arcaded galleries, as seen in many of 
the more important churches in the period (No. 57), is 
interesting, as illustrating how such architectural features 
have had, originally, a constructive meaning — thus, when a 
wooden roof is placed over a circular vault, the external 
walls must be carried up to the springing of the vault, but 
are not necessary above ; the wooden roof only having to 
be supported. This portion was therefore arcaded (the 
arches running back on to the receding extrados of the 
vault in the case of the apses), giving a deep shadow in 
an appropriate position (No. 67). This arcading, from 
being used merely in this position, came to be employed, 
in every possible part of the building, as a decorative ieature, 
so that it even entirely covered the western facade. 

Note. — Similarly in late Gothic in England j the battle- 

mented parapet, primarily of use for defence at the top 

of the building, eventually was employed as a decorative 

feature on window transoms, etc. 

At Venice still remain some palaces of this period, with 

the characteristic cubiform capital, carrying semicircular 

arches often stilted. 

Ex. : The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan and the 
great warehouse on the Grand Canal used in the eastern 
trade, and hence called the Fondaco dei Turchi. 


The towers (campanile = bell tower) are an important 

feature of the period. They are not joined structurally 
with the church to which they belonged, as in England, 
France, and Germany, but are placed at some little dis- 
tance, and sometimes connected by cloisters. 

In plan they are always square, and have no projecting 
buttresses, as on this side of the Alps. They are treated as 
plainly as possible, without breaks, and with only sufficient 
windows to admit light to the staircase, or sloping way, in- 
side ; the windows increase in number from one in the 
lowest storey to five or more in the uppermost storey, 
making this stage into what is practically an open loggia. 

Ex. : The Campanile at San Zenone at Verona is typical 
(No. 63). 

These campanili occur in most of the north Italian 
towns, and in many cases are more civic monuments than 
integral portions of the churches near which they are 
situated, as at St. Mark's at Venice. In these cases they 
were erected as symbols of power, or to commemorate certain 
events, being similar in purpose to the civic towers of 
lielgium (page 174). 

For comparative table of Italian Romanesque, see at the 
end of the sections, page 116. 



"Therein be neither stones nor sticks, 
Neither red nor white bricks ; 
P)Ut for cubits five or six 
There is most £;oodly sardonyx, 
And amber laid in rows. " 


i. Geographical. — Being situated centrally in the Medi- 
terranean sea, and being of triangular form, Sicily presents 
one side to Greece, another to Italy, and the third to Africa. 
Its history is a record of the successive influence of the 
conquests of each of these three powers. 

ii. GeologicaL — The deposits of sulphur contributed 
to the wealth and prosperity of the island. The moun- 
tainous character of the island affords an abundant supply 
of a calcareous and shelly limestone. The influence of the 
geological formation of the island on its architectural 
character should be noted. 

iii. Climate. — The climate of South Italy and Sicily is 
almost sub-tropical. Palms grow in the open air, and the 
orange and lemon groves near Palermo are celebrated. On: 
the south-eastern coast of Italy, the towns have the general 
characteristics of Oriental cities, such as flat roofs, etc. 

iv. Religion, — In Sicilian work, Mahometan influence 
is seen in the intricate geometrical patterns which cover the 
fagades. These they invented, partly owing to the fact that 
their religion forbade the representation of the human figure, 
as tending to idolatry. 

V. Social and Political. — The Mahometans intro- 
duced into Sicily valuable commercial products as grain, 
cotton, etc. Their civilization was, however, considerably 


aided by the previous By/antine influences. Southern Italy 
has always maintained a close connection with Sicily, and 
has yet to be fully explored for traces of its architectural 

vi. Historical. — In a.d. 827 the Mahometans land 
in Sicily, and gradually overrun the whole island. The latter 
part of the tenth century is the most prosperous period of 
their sway. Sanguinary struggles, amongst certain sects, 
lead to the insurrection of several cities, and hasten the 
df)wnfall of the Mahometan dynasty. From 1061-1090 the 
Xormans, under Robert and Roger de Hauteville, conquer 
the island, and a descendant of Roger is crowned at 
Palermo, 1130. Sicily prospers, and her fleet defeats the 
Arabs and Greeks. Civil wars as to the succession lead to 
the island passing in 1268 to Louis of Anjou. 


We can trace the change from the Byzantine to the 
Mahometan dominion, and from the latter to the supre- 
macy of the Norman in the eleventh century, e.^., the 
Byzantine influence is shown in the plan of certain churches, 
as in the Church of the Martorana at Palermo, where a 
viuare space is covered in by four free columns carrying 
a dome, and surrounding vaults. 

Architecture develops considerably under the Norman 
rule by the erection of cathedrals, and a school of mosaic 
was maintained in the Royal Palace during this period. 

The churches have either wooden roofs, or a Byzantine 
dome, but are hardly ever vaulted. Dark, and light stone is 
used in courses externally, and rich mosaics, and coloured 
marbles, are employed as a facing internally. The archi- 
tectural features of the interior, in the buildings of which 
the Cathedral of Monreale (No. 64) is the type, were subor- 
dinate to the mosaic decorations which clothe the walls. 


In Sicily the church at Monreale (begun 1174, No. 64) 
on the high ground at the back of Palermo, illustrates the 
mixed Byzantine and Mahometan influence. In plan it 


resembles a Roman basilica, the aisles being continued to 
form apses at the east end, which is raised above the nave. 
The nave columns have well carved capitals of Byzantine 
form, supporting pointed arches, which are square in section, 
and not in recessed planes as they would be in northern 
work. Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles. 
The walls are a background for mosaics in colour, represent- 
ing biblical history, in scenes surrounded by arabesque 
borders. A dado, about 12 feet high, of slabs of white 
marble, is bordered by inlaid patterns in coloured porphyries. 
The open timber roofs, intricate in design, are decorated in 
colour in the Mahometan style. The interior is solemn 
and grand, the decoration is marked by severity, and by the 
employment of great richness in the material. Note the 
raised, oblong, crowning lantern, the early bronze doors, and 
rich cloisters. 

The Capella Palatina, in the Royal Palace at Palermo, 
1 132, is the model of the above church, and though of small 
size, is unrivalled for richness of the effect of the mosaics. 

In S. Italy the churches are small in comparison 
with their northern contemporaries. The church of San 
Nicolo at Bari (1197) is a good example and typical of 
the class. The entrance front was always distinguished 
with a projecting porch, with the columns resting on lions' 
backs, and supporting a projecting roof, above which is the 
characteristic wheel-window. The detail especially of these 
buildings is refined and graceful, which may be due to some 
extent to the Greek descent of the inhabitants. The crypts 
are a special feature, that at Otranto especially is to be noted 
for the numerous points of support, employed to carry the 



A. Plans. — The plans of most of the churches were 
substantially the same as the basilicas, more especially in 
Central Italy ; in the north are some attempts at vaulting, 


in which modifications are introduced on the lines of 
(".crman work ; in the south, the low lanterns at the crossing, 
oblong in plan, are marked features, as at Alonreale Cathedral 
(No. 64). A number of circular examples were built mainly 
;is ba])tisteries, and an atrium at Novara connects such an one 
to the cathedral ; there is also a fine specimen of an atrium at 
S. Ambroglio, Milan. In the north thegalleried apses seen 
in conjunction with the low arcaded octagon lantern, usual 
,ii the crossing, constitute the charm of the style. Pro- 
JL'cting porches are preferred to recessed doorways, and are 
l)old open arched structures often of two stories, resting on 
isolated columns, standing on huge semi-grotesque lions, 
having a symbolic character. Towers are detached, being 
straight shafts without buttresses or spires. Such attempts 
at the latter as occur may be traced to German influence. 

1;. Walls. — The flat blank arcades of the northern style 
are developed by the Pisan (central) architects in their 
galleried fac^ades. The west front, including the aisles, is 
I arried up to a flat gable, with galleries following the rake, 
and other galleries carried across in bands. The northern 
facades are flatter, and sometimes have a large circular 
window to light the nave. In the south this feature is 
highly elaborated with wheel tracery, as in the churches at 
I'alermo. Flank walls are decorated by flat pilaster strips, 
( onnected horizontally by small arches, springing from 

c. Openings. — In consequence of the bright climate 
the openings are small, and opaque decoration was pre- 
ferred to translucent. Window tracery is not developed. 
The wheel windows just described (No. 63) are only rudi- 
mentary in pattern, more attention being bestowed upon 
their decoration, as in the rich carving of the Palermo 

D. Roofs. — Where round arched cross vaulting, or simple 
barrel vaults, are not employed, the timber roofs of the 
basilica style are used, and often are effectively decorated 
with colour. In the southern examples, domes rather than 
vaults were attempted, but timber roofs are the rule in 
Palermo and Monreale (No. 64), and owing to Mahometan 
influence, great richness in timber ceilings is attained. 


E. Columns. — Piers with half shafts are employed 
rather than columns, especially in the north, where vaulting 
was more in use ; coupled and grouped shafts were, ho\f- 
ever, seldom properly developed in relation to the vaulting 
ribs. Buttressing was obtained by the division walls of an 
outer range of chapels, more often than not unmarked on the 
exterior. In Central Italy, as at Toscanella, rude Corinthian 
columns carry a round arched arcade, above which the plain 
walls are pierced, by the small arched openings of the 
clerestory, while the roof is of the simple basilica type. 

F. Mouldings. — ^Flat bands are characteristic of northern 
work. Strings are formed by small connecting arches, running 
from one pilaster strip to another. Rude imitations of old 
classical detail are met with. Southern work is far superior 
in detail, possessing often good outline, grace, and elegance. 
Richness and elaboration are attempted in the doorways 
(No. 58). 

G. Decoration. — Rude grotesques of men and animals, 
vigorous hunting scenes, and incidents of daily life are found 
in northern sculpture. In Central Italy greater elegance 
is displayed, and classic models were copied. The rows of 
apostles on the lintels of the doorways, as at Pistoia, would 
seem to be enlargements of Byzantine ivories. 

In southern examples, elaborate bronze doors are a 
feature, as at Monreale Cathedral, etc. Elaborate decora- 
tion in mosaic exists as in the Palermo churches, and colour 
was the intention and object in the design of the interiors. 


Taylor and Cresy, " Pisa." 

Street, " Brick and Marble of North Italy." 

Gaily Knight's "The Normans in Italy." 

Hittorf and Zanth, " Sicilian Architecture." 

Osten's " Bauwerke in Lombardie." 

De Dartein's " Etude sur 1' Architecture Lombarde." 

Griiner's " Terra-cotta Architecture of North Italy." 



i. Geographical. — Relative position has had much to 
do with the architecture of each district in France. France 
is practically on the high road between the south and north 
of Europe. When Rome was a great power it was up the 
Rhone Valley that civilization spread. Here it is that we 
find a strong classical element. The trade with Venice and 
the East, that passed via Perigueux, introduced into that 
district a masonic version of the Byzantine style. 

ii. Geological. — France is exceedingly rich ia building 
materials : most of the towns are built of stone, which is 
everywhere abundant. In the volcanic district of Auvergne 
walling is executed in a curious inlay of coloured material. 
The soft, fine-grained stone of Caen, used throughout Nor- 
mandy, was also exported to England. 

iii. Climate. — In France, three zones of climate are 
marked — {a) the northern slope resembles that of the south 
of England ; {b) the western slope, the temperature of the 
Atlantic coasts being higher than the same latitudes further 
east, by reason of the Gulf Stream and warm S.W. winds ; 
(r) the southern, or Mediterranean districts, have a climate 
and landscape almost African in its aspect. 

iv. Religion. — Christianity, when introduced, took a 
strong hold in the Rhone Valley, Lyons contributing martyrs 
to the cause. In this southern district the most interesting 
event is the rise of the Cistercians, the severity of whose 
rules, as to church building, was a reaction from the decora- 
tive character of the later Romanesque, as in fa(^ades of St. 
Gilles, and the cathedral of Aries. Attention was thus con- 
centrated upon the means of producing grand, if severe, 


effects, and the change to the pointed style was promoted, 
by the effort to solve the problems of vaulting. 

V. Social and Political. — Hugh Capet ascended the 
Frankish throne towards the close of the tenth century, 
Paris being made the capital of the kingdom. At this period 
the greater part of the country was held by independent 
lords, and the authority of the king extended little beyond 
Paris and Orleans. Lawlessness and bloodshed were rife 
throughout the century. 

vi. Historical.— On the death of Charlemagne the 
Northmen had invaded northern France, thus giving the 
name to Normandy, their leader, Rollo, being the ancestor 
of the Norman kings of England. The conquest of England 
in 1066 marked the transference of the most vigorous of the 
Normans to England. The hold, however, that they re- 
tained on their possessions in France was the cause of con- 
tinual invasions and wars in the two countries, until the 
complete fusion of races in both was marked by the loss of 
the English possessions in France. 


The southern style is strongest in rich decorative facades, 
and graceful cloisters. The style of Provence is a new ver- 
sion of old Roman features, here seeming to have acquired 
a fresh significance. 

In Aquitania and Anjou it is the vast interiors in one span, 
supported by the massive walls of the recessed chapels, that 
impress us. In them we seem to see revived the great halls 
of the Roman Thermae. In the north, however, the style, 
though rude, is the promising commencement of a new 
epoch, the first tentative essays of a new system. These 
interiors close set with pier and pillar, and heavily roofed 
with ponderous arching, are to lead to the fairy structures of 
the next three centuries, where matter is lost in the 
emotions expressed. 



France exhibits several varieties of the Romanestjue 
style, in which different pecuUarities are traceable. For tliis 
reason it may be divided into provinces. 

The influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest 
in the parts where they more particularly occur, as at Nimes, 
Aries, Orange, etc., in the Rhone Valley. 

In Aquitania two distinct styles occur; the first is the 
round-arched tunnel-vaulted style, of which St. Sernin at 
Toulouse is an example ; and the second is a pointed-arched 
ilome-roofed style, peculiar to this province, and indicating 
an eastern influence; as exemplified in St. Front, Peri- 
gueux, which had a large trade with Byzantium. This 
I hurch may be described as a copy in stone of St. Mark's, 
Venice, but it must be remembered that the arches support- 
ing the domes were pointed (they have in the last few 
years been changed to semicircular). Attached to the 
(hurch is a magnificent campanile in stone, consisting of a 
s< juare shaft, surmounted by a circular ring of columns, carry- 
ing a conical dome. 

The plan of Angouleme Cathedral is of a different 
type. The long aisleless nave has four stone domes supported 
on pointed arches. The transepts are shallow, the choir is 
apsidal. A splendid square tower, with many storeys of 
arcaded openings, is attached to the north transept. The 
smaller churches in this district followed this type, and are 
tull of interest. 

In Auvergne the geological influence is frequently appa- 
rent. It is a volcanic country; inlaid decoration is formed 
with different coloured lavas, giving a local character to the 
buildings, as at Notre Dame du Port, Clermont. 

In Provence pointed tunnel vaults are used. There are 
numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, all 
showing classical influence. The portal of S. Trophime at 
Aries, and that of S. Gilles, exhibit great richness of eftect 
and beauty of detail. The cloisters specially require atten- 
tion ; they consist of columns, used in couples in the depth 
of the wall, and carrying semicircular arches. These arcades 


are entirely open, and no attempt at tracery-filling is made, 
The deep capitals are a special feature, and are sculptured 
with sharp and distinctive foliage. 

In Normandy, prosperous by reason of the power of 
the Norman dukes, the vaulted basilica began at this time 
to develop towards thecomplete Gothic style of the thirteenth 
century, and the churches at Caen illustrate those difficulties 
in vaulting which ultimately led to the introduction of the 
pointed arch. 

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (or St. Stephen's, No. 65), 
commenced in a.d. 1066 by William the Conqueror as a me- 
morial of his victory at Hastings, is the best known example. 
In plan it seems founded on the Romanesque church of 
Spires (Germany). It had originally an eastern apse super- 
seded later by the characteristic clievet. 

The west end is flanked by two towers crowned by spires. 
This fac^ade is a prototype of the Gothic schemes to follow. 
Internally the vaulting illustrates the problems that were 
being solved. The system of Sexpartite vaulting (No. 85) 
adopted here, is a stage, soon to be superseded by the use of 
ihe pointed arch, which solved the difficulty of the oblong 


The Abbaye-aux-Dames, commenced in a.d. 1083. 

The Church of St. Nicholas, commenced in a.d. 1084. 

The former shows especially the progress of intersecting 
vaulting, and is referred to in the Gothic section. 

The style was introduced into England by Edward the 
Confessor and William the Conqueror. 


A. Plans. — In the south, internal buttresses, inclosing 
the outer range of chapels, are preferred, as at Vienna 
cathedral. Round churches are rare in the south. Towers 
are detached, and resemble Italian examples. Cloisters are 
a feature treated with the utmost elaboration and richness. 

St. Stephen's, Caen. 
View of East end. 


(icnerally, double columns with magnificent capitals re- 
ixive the round arches of the narrow bays, which were 
Liitirely open ; glazing or tracery were not required by the 

In the north, the increasing demand for vaulted interiors 
modifies the planning. The vaulting ribs are provided 
with individual shafts, which develop the pier plans. In 
the setting out of the bays important changes are introduced. 
In early plans the nave bay is square, including two bays of 
ilie aisles in its compartment. The possibility of vaulting 
oblong spaces once grasped, enabled every bay of the aisle 
to be a compartment of the church. 

1;. Walls. — Massiveness is the characteristic of all the 
early work. Elaboration is reserved for doorways in the 
arcaded lower portion of the facades, which are often models 
I if simplicity and richness. Buttresses are often mere strips 
of slight projection, and the facades are arranged in storeys, 
with window lights in pairs or groups. The towers are 
mostly square with pyramidal roofs (No. 65). 

c. Openings. — The earlier vaulted churches have no 
clerestory (see below). In the south, narrow openings suffice, 
while in the north a commencement in grouping is made, 
more especially in the direction of filling in the vault 
spandrels (clerestory), with arrangements of three and five 
light openings. 

D. Roofs. — In Provence, the early treatment is a tunnel 
vault to the nave, buttressed by half tunnels over the aisles. 
Xo clerestory is thus provided. The pointed section is 
used doubtless to lessen the thrust upon the walls, and to 
carry the roofing slabs of stone direct upon the extrados of 
the vault. In the north, clerestories are obtained by means 
of intersections in the nave vaults, and arches across the 
aisles are developed towards the later flying buttresses. 
Note that the vault, in the northern examples, is a stone 
ceiling protected by a wooden roof. 

E. Columns (No. 66). — In nave arcades, square piers, 
recessed in planes, have upon their faces half round shafts, 
that run up to carry the vaulting. Columns reminiscent of 
Roman times, circular or octagonal, are also used, often 
alternately, and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from 



the abacus of their huge capitals, imitated from the Corinthian 

F. Mouldings. — In the south, the elegance due to 
classic tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration 
cut upon the structural features of the Norman work. In 
the latter, arched jambs are formed in recessed planes, with 
nook shafts plainly fluted, or cut with zigzags. Capitals 
are cubical blocks, or carved with rude copies of the acan- 





66. CoMPARisox OF Romanesque Pieks. 

thus leaves from old Roman examples. Corbel tables, sup- 
ported by ])lain blocks or grotesque heads, etc., form the 
cornices of the walls. 

G. Decoration. — Painted glass is not favoured in 
southern examples, opaque colour decoration being pre- 
ferred, with small, clear-glazed openings. The diaper work 
so common in the spandrels of arches, etc., in northern work 
is supposed to have arisen from the imitation, in carving, of 
the colour pattern work, or draperies that originally occupied 


the same positions. Stained glass favouring large openings 
is gradually developed in the North. Increased size in the 
clerestories is obtained by the use of the pointed arch. 


Revoil's "Architecture Romane du midi de la France." 

Rame'e, " Histoire de I'architecture." 

Edmund Sharpe, " The Domed Churches of the Cha- 

VioUet-le-Duc, " Dictionnaire Raisonne " (Article on 



i. Geographical. — On the banks of the Rhine, and in 
the south, cities had been estabhshed during the Roman 
occupation, and it was in these parts that Christianity 
took root, while, in the north and east, paganism was still 

ii. Geological. — The existence of stone in the Rhine 
valley facilitated the erection of churches, rendered perma- 
nent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting 
No stone being found on the sandy plains of Prussia, brick 
was employed by the North Germans, and the style here is 
consequently varied from that of the Rhine valley. 

ill. Climate. — The average temperature of Central 
Germany may be said to be the same as Southern England, 
but with wider extremes, as the heat in the summer is ten 
degrees greater, and in the winter correspondingly lower, so 
that carriages in Berlin are converted into sledges. 

iv. Religion. — In the early period the Germans looked 
much to Rome. Charlemagne was a strong supporter of 
Christianity, forcing the people of Saxony to embrace that 
religion. Ritually, the most important local German dif- 
ferences are the double apse plan, and the number and 
importance of the circular churches, built as tombs, or more 
especially as baptisteries, the conversion of the tribes giving 
great importance to that ceremon)^ 

V. Social and Political. — The Germans united under 
Charlemagne afterwards split up into principalities, etc., 
whereas the French, divided at first, became fused into an 
absolute monarchy and have remained, in spite of all 
changes, the least divided of continental powers. In the 


later portion of this period, Germany was troubled by the 
dissensions of the two rival parties, tlie Guelphs and Ghibel- 
lines, the one the supporters of the Church and municipal 
rights, and the other representing the Imperial authority. 
The contlict between the two took place mainly in Lombardy. 

vi. Historical. — It must be remembered that Charle- 
magne, the first Prankish king who became Roman Emperor, 
being crowned by the Pope at Rome, ruled over the land 
of the Franks, which included all Central Germany and 
Northern Gaul. In addition he established the Frankish 
dominion over South Gaul and Germany. In a great 
measure, he restored the arts and civilization to Western 
Europe, resulting in the erection of many important build- 
ings in his dominions. 

On Charlemagne's death inA.D. 814 this empire crumbled 
into pieces through internal wars. In the unsettled state 
of the country, the German princes pushed themselves into 
prominence by demanding the right to elect their own 
sovereign — Conrad the First, reigning as King of Germany 
at the beginning of the tenth century. His successor, Otho, 
extended the boundary of the German Empire southwards 
into Lombardy, being crowned Emperor of the West at 
Rome. This shows the leading position of the Frankish 
emperors at the period, not without its influence on the 
architecture of these regions. The house of Hapsburg 
succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273, when French 
Gothic architecture was introduced, and henceforth copied! 


The style bears a strong resemblance to North Italian 
Romanesque, and the reasons for this have been already 
noted (page in). 

The Rhine districts possess the most fully-developed 
Romanesque to be fountl anywhere, and the style has fewer 
local varieties than in France. The general architectural 
character is rich in the multiplication of circular and 
octagonal turrets, in conjunction with polygonal domes, 
and the use of arcaded galleries under the eaves. The 


most richly ornamented parts are the doorways and capitals, 
which are rude, yet bold and effective in execution. 

The Germans may claim to be the inventors of the Lom- 
bard, or North Italian, Romanesque. Their round arched 
style lasted till 1268. 


The churches at Cologne (dating from end of twelfth 
century) are some of the finest examples. 

Ex. : St. Maria in Capitolio, St. Martin, the 
Church of the Apostles (No. 67), and St. Cunibert may 
be mentioned. Besides which the Cathedrals at Mayence 
(tenth cent.), Worms (twelfth cent.), Spires (eleventh 
cent.), and the east end of Bonn (twelfth cent.) are im- 

The Church of the Apostles at Cologne (No. 67) 
is one of a series which possess characteristic features. In 
plan it consists of a broad nave, and of aisles half the width 
of the nave. The eastern portion has three apses, open- 
ing from three sides of the central space, crowned by a 
low octagonal tower, giving richness and importance to 
this portion of the church. The grouping externally is 
effective, the face of the wall being divided up by arcading, 
and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches 
under the eaves of the roof. Compare the bold dignity of 
this church with the confused effect of the French chevet, as 
S. Stephen's at Caen (No. 65). 

The Cathedral of ^A/orms, erected in the twelfth 
century, vies with Mayence and Spires, as the representative 
cathedral of this period. As usual, one bay of the nave 
occupies two of the aisles, both being covered with cross 
vaults. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western 
apses, the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with 
a low octagonal tower, with a pointed roof. The entrances 
are placed in the sides, a position which is quite German. 
The fagades have semicircular windows, framed in with 
flat pilaster strips as buttresses. 

The Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, built a.d. 768-814 

6;. Church of the Apostles, Cologne. 
Exterior view of Apse. 


by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb for himself, is 
interesting as resembling St. Vitale at Ravenna. In plan it 
is a polygon of sixteen sides, 105 feet in diameter. Internally, 
every two angles converge on to one pier, which thus number 
eight. These support a dome 47 feet 6 inches in diameter, 
rising above the side aisles, which are in two heights. It is 
of interest, historically, as the crowning place of the Western 


A. Plans. — The naves and aisles are vaulted in square 
bays, two bays of the aisle making one of the nave, as in 
the plan of St. Michele at Pavia, No. 55. 

There is sometimes a triforium, and always a clerestory. 

A tower occurs at the crossing with a high-pitched roof 
(No. 67). Western transepts are found, contrasting in this 
respect with Italy. 

The choir is always apsidal, and western apses are 
frequent. (Ex. : at Treves and the Abbey Church at Laach.) 

Apses also occur at the ends of transepts. (Ex. : Church 
of the Apostles at Cologne, No. 67.) 

We should especially note the multiplicity of towers, 
there usually being two at the east end flanking the apse, 
and also often two western towers, connected by a gallery. 
The towers rise in successive storeys, from square to circular 
and polygonal. A characteristic finish is four gables and 
steep roof, a hip rafter rising from each gable top (No. 67). 
These towers produce a rich and varied outline. 

B. Walls. — The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster 
strips, connected horizontally by small arches springing 
from corbels. Owing to the smallness of scale this favourite 
feature is to be considered as a string course or cornice. 

Open arcades (see Italian Romanesque, page 1 1 2 for origin) 
occur under the eaves of roofs, especially round the apses 
(No. 67). 

c. Openings. — No tendency to tracery is found. The 
windows are usually single, being rarely or never grouped. 
The doorways are placed at the side, rarely in the west front 
or transept ends. 



D. Roofs. — In the Rhine district vaulting was intro- 
duced, a central semicircular barrel vault was supported by 
half-circle vaults over the aisles, a system which led by degrees 
to complete Gothic vaulting. Timber roofs were also em- 
ployed for large spans. Tower roofs, and spires of curious 
form, are a great feature of the style. A gable on each 
tower face, with high pitched intersecting roofs, is common, 
and is developed by carrying up the planes of the roof to 
form a pyramid, which leads on to further spire growth 
(No. 67). 

E. Columns. — The nave arcades are generally con- 
structed of square piers, with half columns attached. The 
alternation of piers and columns is a favourite German 
feature. The capitals, though rude in execution, are well 
designed, being superior to the later Gothic examples. 

F. Mouldings are not a strong feature of the style (see 
under walls), caps and bases take a distinctive form, leading 
from Roman through Romanesque and Gothic. 

G. Decoration. — Internally the flat plain surfaces were 
decorated in fresco. The traditions and examples, of the 
early Christian and Byzantine mosaic decorations, were 
carried on in colour. 


MoUer's " Denkmaehler der Deutschen Baukunst," vol. i. 


Antwerp Cathkdral. 

.^v._ I 


Town Hall, Bruges. 






/ / 



i. Geographical. — This small kingdom lies across the 
country, wedged in, as it were, between the Germanic and 
Romanic elements of the European peoples. We shall 
expect to find, therefore, dual influences in its architectural 

ii. Geological. — The district abounds with clay for the 
making of bricks. The consequent effect upon the archi- 
tecture was of course considerable, being specially noticeable 
in domestic work, as in the small house facades in the towns. 

Granite is also available, the cathedral at Tournai being 
wholly of that material. 

Stone is used in Brussels Cathedral and other instances. 

iii. Climate. — Resembles England, but is more exces- 
sive in heat and cold. 

iv. Religion. — Refer to France and Germany. 

V. Social and Political. — The mediaeval architecture 
of these countries developed with the social progress of 
the people. Towns with independent municipalities rivalled 
each other in the arts of war and peace, hindering the deve- 
lopment of an especially national style of architecture. 
The prosperity and wealth of the people gave rise to build- 
ings, large in conception and rich in detail. 

vi. Historical. — Flanders, as a fief of France, became 
by marriage joined to Burgundy. Under the dukes of 
Valois, themselves descended from the French kings, the 
whole of the Netherlands, and Belgium, were brought 
together under the rule of these dukes. During the Middle 
Ages the cities of the Low Countries were the richest and 
most powerful in Europe, and were constantly at war with 
one another. 



The Dutch character of simpUcity is translated into their 
architecture, their churches are barn-hke, and contrast 
with the richly-treated town halls of Belgium, 

The hilly, or eastern, portion of the country partook of 
the influence of (German work, while the flat, or western, 
portion (Flanders) naturally fell under the influence of 
French work. 



The cathedrals of Tournai, Ypres, Brussels, and Antwerp 
(No. 103) are among the more important, and show a general 
inclination to French ideas, in their "short and wide" plan. 
The seven aisles at Antwerp are to be noted. The cathedral 
of Tournai well illustrates three successive periods. The 
nave is Romanesque ; the transepts, with four towers and a 
lantern, and bold apsidal termination, is in the transition 
style ; and the choir is fully developed Gothic, very light and 
elegant in character. The whole cathedral is built of 


shows still more the independent and prosperous condition 
of these medieval towns. The possession of a " beffroi " 
(or belfry) attached to the town hall was an important 
privilege granted by charter ; the lower portion was of 
massive construction, and was used as a record ofifice. The 
beffroi at Bruges is one of the most picturesque of these 
towers ; it is 300 feet high, and forms a landmark for many 
miles round (No. 104). 

The town halls are also exceptionally fine ; those at 
Brussels, Bruges (No. 104), Louvain, and Ghent (No. 105) 
being the more important. Many are designed on the same 
lines, and are of several storeys in height, surmounted by a 
high roof, with dormer windows in tiers. The central por- 


tion is carried up as a tower, with a richly ornamented s])ire 
(No. 104). 

The illustration of the town hall at Ghent is a somewhat 
striking example of comparative architecture, the Gothic 
portion, on the right hand, contrasting with the Renaissance 
portion on the left hand (No. 105). 

The trade halls for buying and selling merchandise, 
and specially cloth, for which the country was renowned at 
this period, are also very characteristic, as at Ypres. 

The guildhalls, or meeting-places for the separate 
trades or guilds, which were very powerful, were also built, 
as in the market-place of Brussels, where several examples 
can be seen. 


A. Plans. — As noted in the examples, short and wide 
plans after French models are adopted in the cathedrals. 
Antwerp has seven aisles. The French chevet is adopted. 

B. 'Walls. — In domestic work the long unbroken fagades 
are to be noticed, and the greater symmetry and regularity 
of the scheme which has somehow come to be regarded as 
a non-Gothic quality. In reality these great halls, as at 
Ypres, are a class of building that the condition of the people 
elsewhere did not necessitate. Compare their free and open 
appearance with the halls of Florence and Siena. 

c. Openings. — -The windows are richly ornamented with 
sculpture, tracery, and panelling. Similarity and regularity 
in position are marked features in these large buildings. 

D. Roofs. — In domestic woik roofs are of steep pitches, 
and are either hipped (No. 105) or ended by crow-stepped 
and traceried gables of picturesque outline. Numerous 
turrets, and bold chimney stacks, combine with the tiers of 
dormers, to complete the rich profusion of the walls below. 

E. Columns. — The use of round pillars in the nave, 
instead of clustered piers, is well exemplified at St. Rom- 
baut, Malines. In the town hall arcades a strange trick may 
be seen : a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches 
by means of a long keystone from a concealed arch. 


F. Mouldings. — -Coarse profusion is characteristic of 
Belgian Gothic, neither the vigour of French, nor the grace 
of English, mouldings must be looked for in the buildings of 
this style. 

G. Decoration. — In St. Waudru, at Mons, blue stone is 
combined with a red brick fillingin of the vault, in a scheme 
of permanent decoration. St. Jacques at Liege is fully- 
decorated with paintings of a rather later date. 


Hagheand Delepierre," Ancient Monuments of Belgium. 
Goetghebuer, "Monuments des Pays-Has." 
King's " Studv Book of Mediaeval Architecture." 


•' Some roods away, a lordly house there was. 
Cool with broad courts, and latticed passage wet 
P'rom rush flowers and lilies ripe to set, 
Sown close among the strewings of the floor ; 
And either wall of the slow corridor 
Was dim with deep device of gracious things ; — 
Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings 
Shut to the side ; or Peter with straight stole 
And beard cut black against the aureole 
That spanned his head from nape to crown ; these 
Mary's gold hair, thick to the girdle tie 
Wherein was bound a child w ith tender feet ; 
Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it." 


i. Geographical. — The boundaries of Germany are 
due to racial differences on the south, west, and east. 

ii. Geological. — The plains of Northern Germany pro- 
duce no building material but brick, and its influence on 
the architecture in these regions is to be noted. 

The materials in the geological divisions are : 

Brick, Stone, Timber, 

N. and N.E. Centre and S. N.W., Hanover, etc. 

iii. Climate. — See under German Romanesque (p. 126). 

iv. Religion. — The most interesting feature in the 
religious life of Germany, prior to the Reformation, is the 
civil, as well as ecclesiastical, rule of many of the bishops. 
Some of these episcopal principalities were not finally 
abolished until the period of the French Revolution. 

V. Social and Political. — Trade guilds acquired great 
importance during this ])eriod, that of the masons, an 
organization called the Freemasons, has been credited with 



the design and working out of the style. In the absence of 
records, the truth as to the individuality of the architects 
will not easily be made out. 

vi. Historical. — In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
Germany was the heart and centre of the Western Empire. 
Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the 
Lombard league of the north Italian towns. The years 
1 254-12 74, known as the "great interregnum," because no 
king was universally acknowledged by all Germany, were 
times of great confusion and lawlessness, until the house of 
Hapsburg came into power in 1273. 


The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed 
directly from France, and is not a pure development of 
the Romanesque, as in the latter country. 

Gothic was reluctantly adopted in Germany, at the time 
when it was attaining its great perfection in France. 



Cologne Cathedral should be regarded as the great 
cathedral in this style, and the student should notice the 
resemblance in plan No. 127 and dimensions with that of 
Amiens (No. 95). The date is 1322-1388. 

Strasburg Cathedral has two western towers, a 
large rose window at west end, and double tracery in the 
windows {i.e. tracery in two planes). The character of 
the detail is somewhat "wiry." The nave was finished in 1275. 

It was built by 

"A great master of his craft, 
Erwin von Steinbach ; but not he alone, 
For many generations labour'd with him. 
Children that came to see these saints in stone, 
As day by d.ay out of the blocks they rose, 
Grew old and died, and still the work went on. 
And on and on and is not yet completed. 
The architect 


Ratisbon Cathedral. 
West Front. 


Built his great lieart into these sculptured stones, 
And with him toiled his children, and their lives 
Were builded with his own into the walls 
As offerings to God." — Longkkllow. 

Ratisbon Cathedral (No. io6) has a regular plan, 
octagonal apse, and western towers.' Notice the peculiar little 
triangular porch. 

Ulm Cathedral is noticeable for the small ratio of 
support in regard to its floor space. It is spacious and 
lofty ; only one western tower is carried up. It has an 
arcaded gallery to the eaves, a remnant from Romanesque 
traditions, and fine choir stalls. 

St. Stephens, Vienna. — This splendid church has the 
following peculiarities of the style : There is no clerestory 
or triforium ; the three aisles are nearly equal in width and 
height, and one great roof covers the whole in one span. 
Tower porches occupy the position of transept ; the com- 
pleted one has a splendid spire, less open than usual in 
German work ; the vaults are traceried, and the original 
stained glass exists. It was built between 1300-1510. 


In domestic work of the period the roof was a large and 
important feature, and frequently contains more storeys 
than the walls below it. It was used as a " drying ground '"' 
for the large monthly wash, and planned with windows to 
get a through current of air. 

In towns the planning of the roof-ridge parallel, or at 
right angles, to the street influenced the design considerably." 

Ex. : At Nuremberg the ridge is generally parallel to 
the street ; dormer windows are plentiful ; party walls are 
apparent, and artistically treated. 

At Landshut and elsewhere, the ridge being generally at 
right angles to the street, gables are the result, and these 
exhibit great variety of design in scrolls, etc. 

The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne, with their 
stepped gables, are noticeable. 

' Date, 1275-1534. The open spires added in 1859-1869. 
^ See German Renaissance, p. 249. 



A. Plans. — Apses are often semi-octagonal, and found 
at the end of transepts. 

The chevet is uncommon, though it occurs at Cologne. 

Triapsal plans are a favourite feature. A square outline 
to the general plan is not uncommon. 

Twin towers occur at west end, as in France, at Ratisbon 
(No. 106). In later work, sometimes only one central tower 
occurs, as in England. 

Entrances are often on north or south, and not at the 
west end. They are sometimes carried up as towers, and 
take the place of transepts. 

Towers are continued from the last period, the junction 
of the spire is often insufficiently marked, and the outline, 
though ornamented, is weak. 

v.. "Walls. — The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque 
style are copied, without reference to their origin and mean- 
ing. Tracery is employed as an outer wall surface, and its 
mullions often cut across the openings behind. 

Liibeck in the north is the centre of a brick district, and 
churches of this material abound ; they are also found in 
Bavaria and at Munich. 

c. Openings. — -Tracery was elaborated, double tracery 
windows being used in later examples. 

Excessive height is a characteristic. The use of two tiers 
of windows is due to the lofty aisles. In the north the 
clerestories are excessive in size, starting as low down as 
possible, to provide a great expanse of stained glass. 

D. Roofs. — Churches nearly always vaulted, but are 
sometimes covered only with a wooden roof. 

The special German feature is the immense roof, covering 
nave and aisle in one span. This is due to the side aisle 
being made as high as the nave. Tower roofs of the 
Romanesque form continue. 

E. Columns. — Piers are usual in interiors, as in England, 
and not the columns found in early French work. The 
tendency is to make them lofty posts carrying the roof, 
again owing to the height of the aisles. 


K. Mouldings. — Complexity rather than simplicity was 
striven after. Interpenetration of mouldings (fifteenth cen- 
tury) was a very characteristic treatment, i.e. in bases, etc., 
each member, after passing through another, is traced out 
and provided with its own base and cap, etc. Much patience 
is bestowed upon the intricacies that resulted from such 

Features such as pinnacles increase in size as they get 
higher, and therefore scale is destroyed, as at Cologne. 

Features do not increase in size in English and French 

G. Decorationi— Foliage was treated in a naturalesque 
manner, and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a 
common feature. 

In fittings the Tabernacle, or Sacrament House, was 
developed as a separate structure placed at one side. Late 
examples are lofty and tower-like, tapering upwards in many 
stages of wonderfully complicated work. Stained glass and 
ironwork are well treated. 


W. Whewell, "Notes on Churches." 
W. Liibke, " Ecclesiastical Art." 

G. Moller, " Denkmaehler der Deutschen Baukunst." 
"Anne of Geierstein," by Sir W. Scott. (Historical 


" I will give thee twelve royal images 

Cut in glad gold, with marvels of wrought stone 

For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon. 

Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas, 

And the strange Asian thalamite that was 

Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea, 

Among the little sleepy pearls to be 

A shrine lit over with soft candle flame." 


i. Geographical, — We should note theOerman influence 
in Lombardy through the connection of this part of Italy 
and Germany, geographically by the Brenna Pass. The 
work at Venice is similarly influenced by an oversea trade 
connection with the East. 

ii. Geological. — The influence of materials in the 
development of this style is important. The coloured 
marbles, of northern and central Italy, supplied abundant 
and beautiful material for the elaboration of plain wall treat- 
ment, as we see in Florence (No. no), Siena, Genoa, Orvieto, 
Lucca, and other places. Red, black, and white marbles 
were used in stripes, and also in panels, the architect relying 
for effect upon their colour and disposition alone. 

The brick and terra-cotta of northern Italy has left a 
decided impress on the architecture of that district, many 
large buildings, such as the Hospital at Milan and the 
Certosa at Pavia, having been erected in these materials. 

iii. Climate. — The influence of climate is apparent in 
the small windows, which were necessary to keep out the 
glare and heat of the Italian sun. The development of 
tracery was of course hindered by the same cause. 

The preference for opaque treatment, such as mosaic 


work and fresco decoration, was inlierited from the Romans, 
while the climate counteracted effectually any desire the 
Italians might hav'C had for stained glass, for the reasons 
mentioned above. 

iv. Religion. — The real power of the Pope as head of 
the Western Church died with Gregory X. (i 271- 1276). 
The following popes were under the mfluence of the King 
of France, and for seventy years they resided at Avignon, 
losing authority and influence, during their absence from 
Rome. Rival popes existed until a settlement was arrived 
at by the Council of Constance, held 1415. The factions 
of the Guelphs and Ghibellines (see under Germany) dis- 
tracted Italy from 1250 to 1409, a subject well treated by 
Mr. Oscar Browning in his "Mediaeval Italy." 

V. Social and Political. — Italy at this period was cut 
up into small principalities and commonwealths, in which 
])olitical life was full of rivalry and activity, and small wars 
were of constant occurrence. Tasso has a line to the effect 
that each holiday they blew the trumpets, and proceeded to 
sack the adjoining town. Yet other countries looked to 
Italy as the head in arts, learning and commerce. The poet 
Dante (1265-1321) lived during this period, and his great 
poem is a summarized picture of the age. 

The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a 
century in advance of northern Europe. 

vi. Historical. — In the thirteenth century the Visconti 
ruled at Milan, and in consequence of the wealth and 
industry of the cities over which they ruled the Dukes of 
Milan were very powerful. The maritime commonwealth of 
Genoa considerably reduced the power of Pisa in 1284, and 
the latter was conquered by Florence in 1406. Florence 
became one of the chief states of Italy under the powerful 
family of the Medici (see under Renaissance, page 210). 


The influence of Roman tradition, and classic forms, was 
so great that the verticality, which marks the Gothic archi- 
tecture in the north, does not pervade the Italian or southern 


examples to the same extent as in those we have been con- 

In the exteriors of the churches we notice espe- 
cially the flatness of the roofs (No. no) ; the tendency to 
mask the aisle roofs on the west fagade, by including the 
whole composition under one gable (N0.107); the great 
central circular window in the west front lighting the nave ; 
the flatness and comparative unimportance of the mould- 
ings, their place being more than taken by the beautiful 
coloured marbles with which the facades were faced (No. 
1 10). 

The importance of the crowning cornice (No. no), and 
the absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance of the but- 
tresses, should be remarked ; also the employment of elabo- 
rately carved projecting porches at the west end, the 
columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and 
other animals (No. 63). 

" .Stern and sad (so rare the smiles 

Of sunlight) looked the Lombard piles ; 

Porch pillars on the lion resting, 

And sombre, old, colonnaded aisles." — Tennyson. 

Sculpture wherever used partakes of classical purity, and 
is so far superior to that exhibited in northern examples, but 
it enters far less into the general composition and mean- 
ing of the architecture. 

Mosaic was also used externally in j^anels, in continua- 
tion of early ideas and practice. 



Milan Cathedral is the most important work erected 
in Italy during the Middle Ages (a.d. 1385-1418) (No. 107), 
and we shall notice especially the German influence, both 
in character and details. It is the largest mediaeval cathe- 
dral, with the exce{)tion of Seville, and is built entirely of 
white marble. The roof is very flat in pitch, being con- 
structed of massive marble slabs, laid upon the upper surface 
of the vaultina;. 








In plan it consists of a nave with specially small clerestory, 
and of double aisles of extreme height ; the nave terminates 
with a circlet of columns in the French manner, but this is 
inclosed in a German polygonal apse. To the Ambrosian 
ritual is due the absence of side-chapels in the original 
scheme. At the crossing of the nave and aisles is placed a 
vault crowned with a marble spire, designed by Brunelleschi 
in A.D. 1440. The feature of the interior is the range of 
immense shafts to the nave, whose summits are treated with 
canopied niches, filled with statues, in the place of the 
ordinary capitals. Externally, the character of the whole 
design is expressive of richness and lace-like intricacy, 
v/hich is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles of 
glittering marble. 

" O Milan, O, the chanting quires ; 

The giant windows' blazon'd tires ; 

The height, the space, the gloom, the glory ! 

A mount of marljle, a hundred spires." — Tennyson. 

The absence of stone and influence of brick on the archi- 
tecture of the district is exemplified in the Certosa at 
Pavia, erected in 1396, and the great Hospital at 
Milan, where terra-cotta is largely used. The churches 
and palaces at Bologna, Vicenza, Padua, Verona, Cremona, 
and Genoa, contain specimens of brick architecture with 
pleasing detail, moulded in this material. 

Venice is remarkable for the civic and domestic archi- 
tecture of this period. In this connection we must remem- 
ber the prominent position Venice occupied as a great 
trading centre in the Middle Ages; also the supremacy of 
her navy, and, in consequence, her power and richness. 

"Where Venice sate in state, throned on her hundred isles." 

Note. — St. Mark's, Venice, is described under Byzantine 

(P- 95)- 
The Doge's Palace (No. 108) (facade a.d. 1424-1442, 
by Giovanni and Bartolommeo Buon) is the grandest 
effort in civic architecture of the period. Each facade 
consists of an arcade of two storeys, one above the other, 
supporting the external wall of the upper storey, which 


latter is, however, supposed by Street to have been an 
addition. The structure is built with rose-coloured and 
white marble, the blank walls of the upper storey being a 
chequer of these colours broken by a few large and richly 
ornamented windows. The delicate and light carving in 
low relief, which occurs in the capitals of the arcades is 
justly celebrated. Notice that the lower columns seem to 
rise out of the ground, having no bases ; also the solid and 
connected character of the tracery, which gives some 
stability to the design, so heavily loaded above. 

The excellence of marble, as a material for carving, is 
largely responsible for the refinement of execution which 
we find in this example. 

The Ca d'Oro Palace (No. 109) on the Grand Canal is 
another fine specimen of the domestic work with which 
Venice abounds. The tracery especially is Venetian in 
character ; as is also the grouping of the windows towards 
the centre of the fa(;ade, the extremities of the design being 
left comparatively solid, thus producing the effect of a central 
feature inclosed by wings. 

Note. — A good general idea of the treatment of Venetian 
Clothic is obtained from the old front of St. James's 
Hall and from the building in Lothbury, opposite the 
Bank of England. 


The Cathedral of Florence (No. no) is chiefly re- 
markable for the wide spacing of the nave arcades, the 
absence of pinnacles and buttresses, and for the marble 
facades in coloured panelling. The cathedral was erected 
(1294- 1462) from the designs of Ainolfo del Cambio. The 
octagonal dome was added on in Renaissance times by 
Brunelleschi. Internally the fine effect promised by the 
plan is not realized. Vast masses of grey pietra serena 
stone, in piers and arches, are contrasted by blank spandrels 
of whitewash. 1 he baptistery is an octagonal structure 
faced with j^ilasters and richly coloured ornamentation, 
being further remarkable for the fifteenth century bronze 
doors by Ghiberti. 








'I'he adjoining Campanile (No. no) by Giotto, a.d. 
i:;j4, is square on plan, 292 feet high, in four storeys of 
increasing height, and is built in red and white marble. 
Tracery of anelementary character is introduced into the 

r r r — ;- 

III. Pi.AX OF Cathedral w Siena. Itai.v. 

windows in this example. Inserted in the solidly designed 
lower storey are sculptured panels of great interest and 
beauty. Below the present tile roof the start of the intended 
spire can be traced. 

The Cathedral of Siena (No. in), a.d. 1243, is to be 


remarked for its dome which is hexagonal on plan, its 
fa(^ade in black and white stripes, the three portals of equal 
size, and for the characteristic rose window. The ground 
falling towards the east end, allows of a crypt being formed 
under the sanctuary, which is used as a baptistery. The 
unfinished elevation of this east end is a grand design. { 

Orvieto Cathedral (commenced in a.d. 1290) resem- 
bles Siena Cathedral, but is noticeable as being imbued 
more considerably with Northern Gothic feeling. It is 
mainly of one date, and more harmonious in design. The 
nave is now restored with an open timber roof of the basilican 

The Church of St. Francis at Assisi was com- 
menced in A.I). 122S, and finished in a.d. 1253. It consists 
of an upper and lower church, and is very northern in detail, 
but it depends much more on its frescoed interior, than upon 
its architecture proper, for its magnificence and character. 
Both churches are vaulted, built of brick and ]ilastered, for 
a complete treatment in painted decoration. 


The influences at work in these districts have already 
been referred to in Romanesque (page 114). The style has 
been described as "Greek in essence, Roman in form, and 
Saracenic in decoration." 

The Cathedrals at Messina, Monreale, and Palermo. 

The plan of these churches is founded on the Roman 
basilica type ; they are not vaulted, but have timber roofs 
of great elaboration and intricate construction, resembling 
in their effect the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. The 
pointed arch is used, but it is square in section, and without 
receding planes. 

The main idea striven after in these churches is the 
unfettered display of mosaic decoration, in which the prin- 
cipal personages of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic 
style, with borders of arabesques in gold and colour. 

The lower part of the walls has a high dado of white 
marble, with a border introducing green and purple por- 
phyry in patterns. 


Palermo Cathedral is a remarkable example of external 
architectural decoration in stones of two colours. The 
apses in particular should be noted. At the west end is a 
group consisting of a central and two lower towers of an 
arbitrary style in detail, but suggesting Northern Gothic in 
its vigour of skyline. 



A. Plans. — The endeavour to create a great central 
space in their churches is noteworthy, as at Florence and 
Siena cathedrals (No. iii), and shows the influence of 
Roman times, and Etruscan originals. The wide spacing 
of the piers in the nave arcades is specially noticeable. 

These arcades are the feature of the interior, the triforlum 
being usually omitted, and the clerestory reduced to the un- 
importance of a vault spandrel, pierced by a small, and gener- 
ally circular, window. These lofty arcades practically throw 
the aisles into the nave, and give the effect of a single 

Towers are usually isolated, and are square shafts, some- 
times beautifully decorated, continuing the Romanesque 
tradition, and developing no spire growth, like northern 

The central lantern tower, in diminishing stages as at 
Chiaravalle and Milan (No. 107), may be mentioned as an 
advance on the Romanesque crossing lantern, and should 
be compared with English work. 

B. W^alls. — The absence of large windows obviated the 
necessity for projecting buttresses, the walls being compara- 
tively solid throughout their length, and able to withstand 
the pressure of a vault without them. From the absence of 
vertical features and shadows in the facade, we may note 
that flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. 

Iron tie-rods were used to secure roofs, vaults, and arches, 
as the constructive feeling in Italian Gothic is subordinated 
to the decorative. 


Facades have often no relation to the structure or roofs 
behind. These facades are often incomplete, being com- 
positions in marble facing, that had not seldom to be post- 
poned, on the score of expense. The marble is used in 
bands of two colours at Siena and Orvieto, and in panelling 
at Florence. This surface treatment should be compared 
with northern methods, in which effect is obtained by 
deeply-moulded string courses, projecting buttresses, and 
lofty pinnacles. 

c. Openings. — The windows are often semicircular 
headed, and are provided with shafts having square capitals, 
instead of the moulded mullions of northern Gothic. These 
slender shafts are often twisted, and even inlaid with cosniato 
work, while the caps are richly sculptured. 

A moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches, 
which are frequently inclosed by square lines as a panel. 

D. Roofs are of low pitch, and play little or no part in 
the design. Often they are in flat contradiction to the steep 
gables of the fa(;ades, which seem to have been borrowed 
from the north, and then treated solely as a field for mosaic 
and other elaborate decoration. 

E. Columns. — The piers of the arcades in the churches 
are at times surprisingly clumsy and rude in plan ; four 
pilasters thrown together is a common section. Round 
piers, with caps and bases, recalling Roman work, are also 
used. We do not find the continuous sequence in design 
in such features, as may be traced north of the Alps. 

In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers, by their 
height and size, produce the effect of a columnar interior. 

F. Mouldings. — In mouldings notice the flatness and 
squareness, and the parts often little changed from Roman 
work. It should be observed that the section of an arch 
mould is often identical with that of the jamb, although 
there may be capitals at the impost. Mouldings are through- 
out subordinate to the decoration, and the most interesting 
are those due to the use of brick as a material. 

G. Decoration. — Opaque decoration was preferred to 
translucent, the art of fresco by constant exercise upon the 
noblest subjects in the grandest buildings, led up to the 
golden age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Some build- 


ings, such as Giotto's chapel at Padua, and the Sistine 
rhapel at Rome are shells for painted decoration, almost 
devoid of architectural features. In carving and sculpture 
(lassie tradition leads to a refinement and an elegance, which 
( oiurasts with the grotesque element found in northern 
work. On the other hand the general design is often lost 
^i-ht of in the attention bestowed upon accessories. 


G. E. Street's " Brick and Marble of N. Italy." 
Waring and Macquoid's "Italian Architecture.' 
Gaily Knight's "■ Ecclesiastical Architecture."' 
Hittorf and Zanth, " Sicily." 
Ruskin's "Stones of Venice." 



i. Geographical. — The Rrchitecture of Spain cannot be 
understood without a knowledge of its geography. The 
existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula 
was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some 
parts, and the subdivision of the country by sierras, or chains 
of low rocky hills. The kingdom of Granada, where the 
Moors held out until the close of the Gothic period, is sur- 
rounded by mountains which inclose a fertile plain, the pick 
of the whole country. 

ii. Geological. — Stone was the material generally em- 
ployed, but granite aiid some of the semi-marbles, which 
the country throughout possesses, were used in places. 
Rubble-work, with brick bonding courses and quoins, were 
used under Moorish influence with much taste and success. 
Kx. : Toledo, the towers and gates of the city. 

iii. Climate. — ^This varies with the structure of the 
country, which is that of a series of table lands of varying 
elevations, divided by sierras. 

Burgos, in the north, 3,000 feet above the sea, is cold, 
and exposed to keen winds even in the summer, while in the 
south of Spain the climate is African. 

iv. Religion. — Constant warfare with the Moors gave a 
certain unity to Spain, the struggle was a war of religions as 
well as of races. Allegiance to the papacy has been a 
characteristic of Spain. Santiago was a pilgrimage centre 
of more than national importance. In ritual the arrange- 
ment of the choirs is to be noted, as well as the size and 
importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals. 

V. Social and Political. — In the Spanish peninsula. 


the Christian states of Castile, Leon, Navarre, Aragon, and 
l'<;rtugal were all growing up and gradually driving the 
Mahometans into the southern part called Andalusia. 
After many reverses, the battle of Tolosa (1212), gained by 
the Christians, was the turning point, after which the 
Mahometan influence in Spain gradually decayed. St. 
Ferdinand ([217-1252) united Castile and Leon, and won 
hack Seville and Cordova. James, called the Conqueror 
(12 13-1276). King of Aragon, pressed into the east of Spain 
until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to 
the Mahometans. 

vi. HistoricaL — The study of the history of a country, 
.ilways necessary in order to properly understand the deve- 
lopment of its architecture, is doubly re(}uired in the case of 
Spain, which has been occupied at different times by peoples 
of races. After the Romans left Spain the Van- 
dals and Visigoths took possession; then the country was 
invaded by the Moors from North Africa, in the seventh 
century a.d., and (or 800 years their influence was continuous. 
The evidence of this is to be seen in the southern part of the 
peninsula (the stronghold of their power), where the curious 
consiruction, the richness of the architecture, and the exu- 
l)erance of intricate, and lace-like, detail are everywhere 
apparent. This influence occasionally reached far into the 
north, owing to the superior education and ability of 
Moorish worktnen. VV'e find Moorish and semi-Moorish 
work in northern towns because the Spanish conquests were 
gradual, thus Toledo was captured by the Christians in 1085, 
and the final expulsion of the Moors did not take place till 


In the south, as already mentioned, there was always 
more or less of Moorish influence, and from Toledo (the 
Moorish capital) this influence made itself felt in Saracenic 
features, sucli as the horse-shoe arch, and, in later times, the 
pierced stonework tracery of Moorish design. These fret- 



work screens occupy the whole window, and are rich in 
detail. Elsewhere we find buildings, under Moorish influ- 
ence, covered with intricate geometrical and flowing patterns 
and rich surface decorations, for which the Saracenic art is 
everywhere remarkable. Ex. : Jews' synagogue, etc., at 

The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors 
seem to have been executed by the aid of Moorish work- 

The Gothic style is best in Catalonia, where, though on 
French lines, it has a special character, owing to the grand 
scale of the single-span vaulted interiors. 

Leon Cathedral in the North goes beyond its French 
original, in the expanse of Avindow opening and the tenuity 
of support. 

The exteriors generally are flat in appearance, owing to 
the space between buttresses being utilized internally for 

In the later period, the grafting of classical details on to 
Gothic forms produced some of the most picturesque features 



Burgos (a.d. 1220) is irregular in plan (No. 112). The 
view (No. 113) shows the two towers of the western fac^-ade, 
with their open-work spires. The richly-treated lantern in 
the background was completed in 1567. The "coro" or 
choir is in the usual western position. Note that the nave 
is reduced to a mere vestibule, also the extraordinary size 
and importance of the side chapels. Ex. : The chapel of 
the Connestabile, an octagon over 50 feet in diameter, which 
is specially remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late 
detail. The character of interior is shown in No. 114. 

Toledo Cathedral (a.d. 1227) is a five-aisled church, 
and resembles Bourges in France in general idea. It is 
about the same length, but nearly fifty feet wider, and has 
the choir inclosure west of the crossing, with a singularly 



shallow apsidal sanctuary. Here is placed an immense 
rctablo or reredos (wood), this being flanked by tiers of 
arcaded statuary upon the sanctuary piers. 

Barcelona Cathedral (a.d. 1298) is remarkable in 

112. l'i.\N df Lukcos Cathedral. 

that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttresses, which 
are internal features, as at Albi in the south of France, the 
space between being used as chapels. This was developed 
at Gerona, where the aisles have disappeared, and the 
interior consists of one vaulted hall, 73 feet in width, in 


four compartments. The Central Hall of the Law Courts 
will give an idea of this interior. 

The Church of S. Maria del Mar, in the poor 
quarter of Barcelona, is a splendid example of a town church. 
The vauhs rest upon octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet 
diameter, the spacing being wide, and the aisles and nave of 
great height. There is no triforium, and only small clere- 
story windows in the spandrels of the vaults. Severe sim- 
plicity is the characteristic of the church ; both inside and 
out there are no features but a few well-studied mouldings. 

Seville Cathedral (1401-1520), erected on the site of a 
mosque of the same size, is the largest mediaeval cathedral 
erected anywhere. It bears a considerable resemblance to 
Milan Cathedral, but is less fanciful in detail, or, as some I 
would prefer to say, of a purer Gothic style. The vaulting is j 
rich, loaded with bosses in places, but confused and weak 
in its lines. Externally there is a certain shapelessness and 
absence of sky-line. Note. — Vhcparroqiiia or jjarish church 
is separate, but included within the cathedral area, 

The peculiarity of plan was no doubt caused by the struc- 
ture being made to fil up the space occupied previously by 
a mosque. It is typically Spanish in having a rectangular 
outline ; it differs from most of the great Continental churches 
in having a square east end, and not an apse. Compared 
with Westminster Abbey (the highest stone-vaulted building 
in England) we find that the nave of the abbey is the 
same height and width (practically) as one of the four side 
aisles of Seville, while the bays of the nave arcade at 
Westminster are but half the sj)an. The length of the 
Abbey is slightly under that of Seville. Thus one aisle of 
Seville represents the size of the nave and choir of the abbey, 
which is repeated four times at Seville; in addition to 
which there is the great nave, 55 feet wide from centre to 
centre of pier, and 130 feet high. Surrounding the church, 
and of the same depth as the aisles, are the ring of chapels. 
From these comparisons we may obtain an idea of the 
immense size of tliis Spanish cathedral. 

St. Juan de los Reyes, Toledo (No. 115) is a rich 
example of a sepuhhral chapel, erected by Ferdmand and 
Isabella, comparing in its intended purpose with Henry VII. 's 


Burgos Cathedral. 
View from North West. 

Burgos Cathedral. 

View of the Choir. 


('liapel at Westminster. In domestic work the best 

examples are to be found in Catalonia. Ex. : Barcelona 
municipal buildings, and Valentin town hall. 


\. Plans. — In regard to the plan of the cathedrals, we 
remark that the great width of many of the naves is a 
prominentcharacteristic. The positionof thechoir isgenerally 
to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts, as at Burgos 
(No. 112); an arrangement probably derived from the Early 
Christian basilicas, as at St. Ciemente, Rome (No. 42). 
( hapels are numerous and large. Tht pai roquia, or parish 

'.rch, is often included in the area of the cathedral, as at 


rhe liinborio, or dome (No. 114) at the crossing of the 
nave and transepts, is similar in treatment to examples in the 
south of France. Compare S. Sernin, Toulouse, and Burgos 
Cathedral (see under Columns) in plan, and Valentia 
and St. Ouen at Rouen, in design. Internally these octagon 
vaults are characteristic ; they seem inspired by Moorish 
work. They are intricate in design and ingenious in con- 
struction (Xo. 115). 

B. Walls. — In design French models are favoured. The 
later work is characterized by extreme, and even wild, 
ornamentation. There is much flatness and absence of sky- 
line in the exteriors. Burgos has in place of gables efTe:tive 
horizontal terminations by arcades, on the lines of the facade 
<jt Notre Dame at Paris. Traceried spires, as in Germany, 
are favoured ; those at Burgos are worthy of attention (No. 

c. Openings w^ere carried to excess in Leon Cathedral, 
which has not only a glazed triforium, but also as much 
as possible of the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as 


Even in the South, as at Seville, openings are of a large 
size, stained glass being much used. 

D. Roofs. — Vaulting is used freely, but developed in 
decoration, rather than in construction. The tracery, bosses. 


ribs, etc., employed, produce a rich effect ; but the lines are 
not always good, and nothing to compare in interest with 
English vaulting was accomplished. 

In the South, wide interiors, in one span, were successfully 
vaulted in a simple style; that at Gerona is no less than 7 3 feet 
span, and compares with the hall at Law Courts, London. The 
boldest and most original vaults are the great flat spans, that 
form galleries across the western ends of the churches, ex- 
tending through nave and aisles in three spans. Their rich 
sofiites attract attention on entering, and their curves frame 
the view of, and give scale to, the interior of the church 

E. Columns. — The favourite feature of a lantern at the 
crossing gives importance to the central piers. At Burgos 
(No. 112) they are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567), and con- 
trast with the great octagons at S. Sernin, Toulouse. 

In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed 
for all the arcades, similar in effect to those of Milan, but 
without the tabernacle capitals. 

F. Mouldings. — Refinement is not the usual charac- 
teristic of Spanish work. Original and arbitrary forms will 
be found, mingled with features borrowed from French work. 
In Catalonia the best and most artistic work, in a restrained 
manner, was produced ; in S. Maria del Mar, Barcelona (see 
a7ite, page 196), every moulding has its purpose and expres- 
sion ; but this is far from being the character of other 
more numerous examples in Spnin. 

G. Decoration. — The most decorative feature in Spanish 
churches is the vast reiablo or reredos, which is often as wide 
as the nave, and reaches up to the vaulting. They are con- 
structed of wood, stone, or alabaster, and are crowded with 
niches, figures, canopies, and panellirg (No. 115). 

Painting and gilding are used to heighten the effect, the 
former naturalistic, and the latter sometimes solid, so that 
the effect of metal is obtained. 

Saclpture in stone or marble is often life-size, naturalistic, 
and expressive, and however deficient in other qualities, it 
combines in producing the notoriously impressive, if sensa- 
tional, interiors of Spanish churches. 

Stained glass is used, as at Seville, Oviedo, etc. Usually 

115. San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo. 



it is Flemish in style, is heavy in outline, and strong to 
ijaudiness in colouring. Rejas, or rich and lofty grilles, 
(No. 114) in hammered and chiselled iron, must also be 
counted as decoration. The formality of the long and 
\crtical bars is relieved by figures beaten in repousse, in 
duplicates, attached back to back, and by crestings and 
traceries adapted to the material, and freely employed. Few 
things in Si)ain are more original and artistic than these 


G. E. Street's "Gothic Architecture in Spain." 
Waring and Macquoid's '• Architectural Art in Spain." 


" New structures, that inordinately glow, 
Subdued, brought back to harmony, made ripe 
By many a relic of the archetype 
Extant for wonder ; every upstart church, 
That hoped to leave old temples in the lurch, 
Corrected by the theatre forlorn 
That as a mundane shell, its world late born, 
Lay, and overshadowed it." — Browning. 


The causes which led to the re-introduction, or re-birth, 
(Renaissance) of Classic Architecture in Europe at the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, are instructive, and must 
be grasped in order fully to understand so great a change. 

In this section we shall treat of the Renaissance move- 
ment as affecting the whole of Europe. 


i. Geographical. — The Renaissance movement, arising 
in Italy in the fifteenth century, spread from thence to France, 
Germany, and England, and over the whole of Western 
Europe — over what had been, in fact, the Roman empire in 
the West. The Eastern empire did not come under its 
influence ; in fact, the Greeks in the East, who had been the 
most civilized people in Europe, were now falling before the 

..'. ^,. ° '} The reader is referred to each country. 
111. Climate. | ^ 

iv. Religion. — The invention of printing, which aided 


the spread of knowledge, and the diffusion of freedom of 
ihouglit, led, among the Teutonic races, to a desire to break 
away from Romish influence. This desire was originally 
fostered in England by Wycliffe (a.d. 1377), and by Martin 
Luther in Germany (a.d. 15 17), in which countries Refor- 
mation in religion proceeded side by side with Renais- 
sance in architecture. This renewed vigour in thought 
and literature was accompanied by a fresh building era in 
northern Kurope. In England, civil and domestic architec- 
ture received a special impulse from the diffusion among 
laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries dissolved 
by Henry VIII. 

In Italy, on the other hand, where the Reformation took 
no hold, and where comparatively few churches had been 
built in the (iothic manner during the Middle Ages, a revival 
of ecclesiastical architecture took place, and in every impor- 
tant town we find Renaissance churches, carried out on a 
grand scale and in a most complete manner. The Jesuits 
who headed the counter-reformation carried the style into all 
parts, giving to it a special character of their own. 

V. Social and Political — A new intellectual movement 
manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture, and 
thus the former influences the public taste. The fall ot 
Constantino])le in a.d. 1453, caused an influx of Greek 
scholars into Italy, whose learnmg was an important influence 
in an age which was ripe for a great intellectual change. 
Thus a revival of classical literature produced a desire for 
the revival of Roman architecture. 

Again, among the MSS. of Greek and Latin authors 
brought to light about this time, was Viiruvius' book of 
Architecture, which was translated into Italian in a.d. 152 i. 

Erasmus (1467-1536), one of the few Greek scholars of 
the period, worked hard to direct the public attention to 
the original text of the New Testament, and to the Greek 
classics, as a set-off to the writings of the schoolmen, whose 
authority had for so long borne an exclusive sway. 

Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected, 
because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on 
the Italians, who had at hand the ancient Roman remains, 
such as the Pantheon, the Basilica of Maxentius, the 


Colosseum, the remains of the great baths, and the Roman 
fora. In Italy, therefore, practically a direct return was 
made to Roman forms. (Refer to each section of Renais- 
sance architecture. 

vi. Historical. — We shall find that this section is ex- 
ceedingly interesting. At this period — the beginning of the 
sixteenth century — we note a general grouping together of 
the smaller states into independent kingdoms, under powerful 
rulers, who governed with authority, and kept large standing 
armies. We find also that three great inventions came into 
being — gunpowder, which changed the whole method of 
warfare ; the mariner's compass, which led to the discovery 
of new worlds beyond the sea, and the foundation of colonies 
by European states ; and, lastly, printing, which favoured 
that stirring of men's minds which caused the reformation in 
religion, and the revival of learning. 


The main features in the style, of course, are the revival 
of the classic orders, viz., the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian 
columns or pilasters, with their entablature, which are used 
decoratively, in the same way as the Romans used them, 
and are of no constructive value. Buildings designed for 
modern wants are clothed in the classic dress of ancient 
Rome. It must not be supposed, however, that in this 
development no advance was made. It is true that classic 
precedent was the basis, but the classic decoration of column 
and pilaster, entablature and details, was applied in many 
novel and pleasing forms. System in their application was 
gradually evolved, and a style built up which has become 
the vernacular of all modern states. 

It is in the decorative detail, also, that such an advance 
may be noted. In metal work the bronze baptistery gates at 
Florence are won in competition by the sculptor Ghiberti, 
in 1404, and are the finest examples of a class of work for 
which these craftsmen-architects were famous. These acces- 
sories of architecture were erected, or added to many old 
buildings, both in Italy and elsewhere. 



Noh: — Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes 
which led to the revival of classical architecture throughout 
Kurope, and before proceeding especially to consider the 
development in each country, let us compare a few of the 
more prominent characteristics of the style, with the treat- 
ment which obtained in Gothic architecture. 

3. EXAMPLES (see under each country). 

A. Plans. — Symmetr)' and 
proportion of part to part 
carefully studied (Xos. 124, 
125, 126). 

Cirandeur gained by simpli- 
city (No. 121). Fewness of 
parts has a tendency to make 
the building' appear less in 
size than it really is. 

Towers are sparingly used, 
and when they occur are 
symmetrically placed. In 
England those by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, at St. Paul's 
(No. 155), and Bow Church, 
Cheapside, are e.xceedingly 
fine. The dome is a pre- 
dominant feature in the style 
(Nos. 130, 131, 138). 

Interiors of churches arc 
planned on Roman prin- 
ciples (Nos. 122, 124, 125, 
126), and covered with flat- 
tish domes and pendentives. 

The parts are few, the nave 
being divided probably into 
three or four compartments 
(No. 122). In consequence 
of this, a general eftect of 
grandeur is produced. 


A. Plans. — Picturesqucness 
and beauty of individual 
features moi'c particularly 
sought after (Xos. 94, 95, 

Grandeur gained by multi- 
plicity (Nos. 80, loi). In 
consequence of the large 
number of parts, the building" 
has a tendency to appear 
larger than it really is. 

Towers are a general fea- 
ture, and are often crowned 
with a spire (Nos. 78, 80. 93, 
96, 103, 104, 106, 113). Small 
towers, turrets, and finials 
help to emphasize the verti- 
cal tendency (Nos. loi, 107). 
The tower and spire are pre- 
dominant features (No. 65). 

Interiors are more irregular, 
and are covered with stone 
vaulting (Nos. 79, 81, 91, 
102), or open-timbered roofs. 

The parts are man\", a nave 
of the same length as a Re- 
naissance church probably 
divided into twice as many 
compartments. Compare St. 
Paul's, London, with Cologne 
Cathedral (Nos. 124, 127). 




B. Walls are constructed in 
ashlar masonry of smooth- 
faced waHing, which, in the 
lower storeys, is occasionally 
heavily rusticated (No. Ii8). 
Materials are large, and carry 
out the classic idea of few- 
ness of parts. Stucco or 
plaster are often used as a 
facing material where stone 
is unobtainable. The idea 
of the use of the material 
according to its nature is 
lost, the design, as such, 
being paramount. Visible 
joints are considered a defect. 

Angles of buildings often 
rusticated, as in Florence, 
i.e., built in blocks of un- 
smoothed stone, or carefully 
indented with patterns (No. 

Gable ends of churches and 
buildings generally are 
formed as pediments, with a 
low pitch (Xos. 130, 138, 155). 

Simplicity of treatment and 
breadth of mass are promi- 
nent characteristics (Nos. 
118, 119, 120, 138). 

c. Openings. — Door and 
window openings are semi- 
circular (No. 118, 119, 128, 
133), or square-headed (Nos. 
120, 134). Note. — The in- 
fluence of climate is impor- 
tant. In Italy, which has a 
bright climate, the windows 
are small. In northern 
Europe, with a dull climate, 
in the earlier period windows 
are large, and often have 
stone muUions or solid up- 
rights dividing the window 

B. ^Valls are often constructed 
of uncoursed rubble or small 
stones (No. 74), not built in 
horizontal layers, also of 
brick and rough flint work. 
Materials are small in size, 
and carry out the Gothic idea 
of multiplicity. .Stone-work 
is worked according to the 
nature of the material to a 
new and significant extent. 
It is not too much to say 
that, as in a mosaic, each 
piece in a wall has its value 
in this style. 

Angles of buildings often of 
ashlar masonry or smooth- 
faced stone, the rest of the 
walling being of rough 
materials, as rubble or flint. 

Gable ends are steep, 
occupied by windows, and 
crowned either with sloping 
parapet or ornamented 
timber barge boards (Nos. 
75, 80, 89, 150). 

Uoldness and richness of sky- 
line and intricacy of mass 
are prominent characteristics 
(Nos. 96, loi, 103, 106, 107). 

c. Openings. — Door and 
window openings usually 
pointed (Nos. 82, %2)-i 86, 93, 
96, 102, 109), and of con- 
siderable size, and divided by 
mull ions, though not neces- 
sarily so. This treatment is 
forthe introduction of painted 
glass. The use or non-use 
of this means of decoration 
influences the size and num- 
ber of the opening".s. Often 
little attention is paid to the 
axes, /.t'.,the placing of open- 



space vertically (Nos. 134, 
•53)- Openings generally 
come over one another, and 
are symmetrically disposed 
with reference to fa9ade. 
he classic system of moulded 
architra\e (Nos. 28, 41, 117) 
projecting from the wall face 
is revived. Doorways and 
other openings are sur- 
rounded by such architraves, 
often richly carved. 

ings over one another. Win- 
dows and doors were placed 
where wanted, without much 
regard to symmetry of com- 
Openings formed in reced- 
ing planes (Nos. 82, 86, 116), 
with mouldings of great rich- 
ness, are often provided with 
small circular shafts and 
carved capitals. 

116. Gothic Doorway. 117. Renaissance 




. Roofs. — Vaults are of sim- 
ple Roman form without ribs. 
Domes have usually an in- 
ternal plaster soffit or ceiling, 
and are painted in coloured 
fresco, upon which they de- 
pend for their beauty. The 
dome over a large space is 
generally constructed with 
an inner and outer covering, 
as St. Paul's, London (No. 
1 54). Open-timbered roofs 
occur, as in the Jacobean 
halls, but the tendency is 
gradually to plaster them 
up. All roofs but domes are 
neglected and hidden as far 
as may be. 

. Roofs. — Vaulting is devel- 
oped by means of the pointed 
arch, and depends for effect 
on the richness of the carved 
bosses, on the setting out 
of the ribs, on which the 
panel of the vaulting rests, 
and on the grace and beauty 
of these curves (No. 85). 
Open-timbered roofs are a 
beautiful feature of the style, 
the most perfect specimen in 
England being Westminster 
Hall. Externally roofing is 
an important element in the 
design, and in conjunction 
with chimneys, must be 
reckoned as a mea,ns of effect. 




K. Columns. — The classic 
columns and orders, revi\ed 
and used decoratively in fa- 
cades, as in the Roman man- 
ner (Nos. 119, 123, 128, 130, 
1 33), and structurally for por- 
ticoes, etc. (Nos. 138, 155). 
" I, from no building, gay or 

Can spare the shapely Grecian 

I. Mouldings. — The prin- 
cipal cornice plays an impoi^- 
tant part in the style, and in 
the Florentine palaces is bold 
and impressive (Nos. 118, 
120). Cornices often, how- 
ever, mark each storey (Nos. 
119, 128). 

The contours of mouldings fol- 
low on classic lines, as may 
be seen in the architra\-e 
(No. 117). 

Cornices and other fea- 
tures of classic origin (Nos. 
121, 129, 130, 146) occur in 
e\'ery building, and are beau- 
tifully carved. Refinement is 

Cornices, balconies, string- 
bands, and horizontal fea- 
tures g-enerally (Nos. 118, 
119, 120, 128) are strongly 
pronounced, and produce an 
effect of Itorizontality. 

c. Decoration. — The hu- 
man figure abandoned as a 
scale, statuary being often 
much larger than life-size 
(Nos. 123, 130, 131, 155). 

Stained glass is little used, 
all of the best efforts at co- 
lour being by means of 
opacjue decoration, as fresco 


E. Columns, where used, are 
entirely constructional, or ex- 
pressive of pressures upon the 
piers to which, sometimes, 
they are attached (Nos. T}^^ 
108, 109). The relative pro- 
portion of height to dia- 
meter does not exist, and the 
capitals and bases are either 
heavily moulded or carved 
with conventional foliage. 

F. Mouldings.— The para- 
pet, often battlemcnted, or 
pierced with open tracer^' 
(Nos. 89, 90, loi, 109), takes 
the place of a cornice, and 
is less strongly marked than 
the boldly projecting classic- 
al cornice. 

The contours and mouldings 
are portions of circles joined 
by fillets, inclosed in rectan- 
gular recesses (No. 116), or 
in later . times based on a 
diagonal splay (Nos. 82, 92). 

Tablets and string courses 
of car\'ed ornament occur, 
varying in outline and treat- 
ment in different centuries. 
Gothic mouldings depend for 
effect upon light and shadow. 

A'ertical features, such as 
buttresses casting a deep 
shadow, numerous pinnacles, 
turrets, high roofs, with 
towers and spires, produce 
an effect of I'erticalffy. 

G. Decoration. — The hu- 
man figure adhered to as a 
scale, thus helping in giving 
relative value to parts. 

Stained glass is exten- 
sively used, is the chief 
glory of internal decoration, 
and partly the raison 



or mosaic, which is lavishly dKtrc of the immense tra- 

applied to interiors. (Ex. : ccried windows, which acted 

the Sistine Chapel, Rome, as a frame for its reception 

by Michael Angelo.) (Xos. 80, 81, 89, 96). 

".SL;raffito" decoration, /.t'., Colour is dependent on the 

scratched and coloured plas- actual material, as in the 

tcr, is sometimes applied to coloured marbles of central 

xteriors. {^^.■.'Ci\^ Palazzo Italy (see No. no, Florence 

'<•/ Cfliisiglio, by Fra Gio- Cathedral). 

rondo, at Verona.) 

C.icat efficiency in the crafts is Car\ing is often grotesque and 

noticeable in the work of rudely executed, but in the 

the early Renaissance archi- best examples possesses a 

tects, who are often painters decorative charactei', in har- 

;ind sculptors,<'.i^.,Donatello, mony with the architecture, 

('.liiberti, and Delia Robbia, This is effected by the con- 

and students should see their structive features themselves 

work in the South Kensing- being enriched, 
ion Museum. 

Note. — It is now necessary to glance briefly through the 
chief peculiarities of the Renaissance style or manner 
in each country, noticing the influence of climate and 
race, and, where possible, the social and political causes 
which were at work. 

As about this period the names of architects begin to 
be prominently mentioned in connection with their own 
designs, we shall find it sometimes convenient to group 
them into schools for that purpose. In this respect the 
student will derive much benefit from reading " The 
History of the Lives and Works of the most celebrated 
Architects," by Quatremere de Quincy, and the bio- 
graphies of G. Vasari, Milizia, and others, translations 
of which are published, and will be found in the 
R.I.B.A. Library. His interest in their works will be 
much increased by reading of the influences which 
directed these master-minds, and the various mcidents 
in their lives, which tended to influence their work. 

The student should study many excellent examples 
which have been collected in the architectural courts of 
the South Kensington Museum ; it is only by a close 
study of the details themselves that the style can be 
thoroughly grasped. 


"Come, leave your Gothic, worn-out story. 

They love not fancies just betrayed, 

And artful tricks of light and shade. 

But pure form nakedly displayed, 

And all things absolutely made." — Clough. 


The Renaissance of Itnly varies ceJisi4efab1y in the chief 
centres of the great revival, namely, Florence, Rome, 
and Venice. This was due to various social and political 
causes,^which we will endeavour to enumerate shortly. 


" Florence at peace, and the calm, studious heads 

Come out again, the penetrating eyes ; 

As if a spell broke, all resumeil, each art 

You boast, more vivid that it slept awhile. 

'Gainst the glad heaven, o'er the white palace front 

The interrupted scaffold climbs anew ; 

The walls are peopled by the painter's brush, 

The statue to its niche ascends to dwell." — Browning. 


i. Geographical. — It must he remembered that Florence 
was more than a city, being, in fact, one of the powers of 
Italy, although its dominions included no large part of 
Central Italy. The activity and influence of the Floren- 
tines caused a Pope to declare that they were the fifth 

ii. Geological. — The cjuarries of Tuscany supplied large 

ii8. Palazzo Riccardi, Florence. 



blocks of stone and marble, which, lying near the surface, 
were easily obtainable for building purposes. The monu- 
mental character and massiveness of these materials con- 

i siderably influence the style of the architecture, as will be 

I at once apparent to every student (No. ii8). 

iii. Climate. — Among other causes which affected the 
development of the style, we should note that the bright and 
sunny climate rendered large openings for light unnecessary. 
The character of the climate is well indicated by Tennyson : 

" In bright vignettes, and each complete 
Of tower or duomo, stiiiity-swect. 
Or palace, how the city glittered 
Through cypress avenues, at our feet." 

iv. Religion.— At this period Florence produced the 
great Dominican preacher, Savonarola, whose reforming 
energy divided the city, and swayed its policy. He looked 
to the French king to call a general council to reform the 
church. In art he tended to the Puritan theory. Although 
suppressed by the Pope, his influence on the minds of his 
generation was not lost — the Sistine frescoes witness his 
power over Michael Angelo. 

V. Social and Political. — The Medici dynasty, so 
intimately connected witli the rise of Florentine art, was 
founded by John of Medici, who died 1429. He took the 
popular side against the nobles, gradually usurping supreme 
authority over the state. His son Cosimo, who died 1464, 
employed his wealth liberally in the advancement of art. 
He founded the Medici Library and Platonic Academy, and 
was the patron of Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelozzo, 
Lippi, Masaccio, and others. Cosimo was succeeded by 
Pietro and Lorenzo Medici, and Florence became the 
centre of the Renaissance in art and literature. 

The artists of the period were at the same time sculptors, 
painters, and architects ; among these were — Luca della 
Robbia (1400-1482), famous for his glazed reliefs in terra- 
cotta; Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), the sculptor of the 
bronze gates to the Baptistery ; and Donatello (1386-1466).^ 
As showing the commercial prosperity of Florence, we may 

' Famous for his bas-reliefs and statues at Florence and elsewhere. 



note that the golden florin was first coined in that city in 
1252, and soon became the general standard of value in 

As rival parties in the city were engaged in constant hos- 
tilities, safely and defence were primary motives in building. 
The palaces are in reality semi-fortresses. 

vi. Historical. — Florence commenced to grow on the 
removal of the inhabitants of Fiesole, dov/n to the banks of 
the Arno in 11 25. 

The grouping together of the independent commonwealths 
of Italy is a feature of this period, and, as in ancient Greece, 
one city bore rule over another. Pisa became subject to 
Florence in 1406. Florence gradually becomes the chief 
power in Italy. During this period the nobles were at 
constant feuds with each other, being divided into the 
hostile camps of Guelphs and Ghibellines, the former being 
generally successful. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) took part 
in these conflicts. Eventually the wealthy family of the 
INIedici becomes the ruling power in the State (see above). 
In 1494 Charles VIII. of France occupied Florence, during 
his brief invasion of Italy, arising from his claims on the 
kingdom of Naples. The short-lived republic of Savonarola 
(see above) followed, but the Medici, in spite of succes- 
sive banishments, were finally reinstated by the Emperor 
Charles V., who took the town in 1530, acting on behalf of 
the Ghibellines. During a siege of eleven months, Michael 
Angelo acted as the engineer of the republic. The suppres- 
sion of political liberty followed, especially under Cosimo I. 
(1537-1564), who, however, greatly extended the Florentine 
dominions, Siena being ceded to him in 1557 by the 
Emj)eror. His successors, the Grand Dukes of Florence, 
followed, until in 1737 the House of Medici became ex- 
tinct. The Duchy then passed into the hands of Austria 
till 1 80 1, when, as the Republic, and afterwards as the 
Kingdom of Etruria, it enjoyed political freedom (with the 
exception of the years 1807-1814, during which time it was 
incorporated with France). In i860 it was united to the 
Kingdom of Italy. 



TJie massive blocks of rusticated masonry in the lower 
jieys (No. ii8) of the Florentine Palaces, give to these 
.iiildings that character of solidity and ruggedness for which 
ihey are remarkable. The absence of pilasters, as ornamen- 
tation, is specially noticeable in the design of the palaces, 
which are therefore called " astylar." The sparing use of 
carved detail, and in fact of features of any kind, gives a 
marked character of simplicity to the style. The grand 
cticct of these palaces is considerably aided by the massive 
cornice which crowns the structure, being proportioned to 
tlie whole Jidght of the building, as in the Riccardi Palace 
(Xo. 1 1 8). y 

^ _ 3. EXAMPLES. 

The best-known Florentine palaces are : 
The Riccardi Palace (No. 118) (1430), by Brunelleschi 
and Michelozzo. 

ThePitti Palace (1440), by Brunelleschi and Michelozzo. 
The Strozzi Palace (1489), by Cronaca. 
These are all of the massive type of construction. The 
Ruccellai Palace (1460), by Alberti, and the Gaudagni 
Palace, by Cronaca, are lighter and more refined. 

The types of doors and windows may be divided into 
three groups : 

(a.) The arcade type, usual in the heavily rusticated 
examples, which is employed at the Strozzi, Pitti, 
and Riccardi Palaces, consists of a round arch, in 
the centre of which is a circular column supporting 
a simple piece of tracery (No. 118). 
{^.) The architrave type is that in which mouldings 
inclose the window, and consoles on either side 
support a horizontal or pediment cornice, as in the 
courtyard of the Pandolfini Palace and in the Palazzo 
(c.) The order type is that in which the opening is 
framed with a pilaster or column on each side 
supporting an entablature above ; this is the linal 


development, as employed in the Pandolfini Palace, I 
ascribed to Raphael, and also shown in No. 120. '• 

Note. — As we have reached the period when the person- , 
ality of the architect has increased in importance, we 1 
will now enumerate very briefly the chief works of i 
Brunelleschi and Alberti, as being the leaders of the 
Florentine school. 

BRUNELLESCHI (1377-1444), 

a Florentine by birth, studied the construction of the 
Pantheon at Rome in order to be able to complete the 
unfinished dome over the Cathedral of Florence, the carry- 
ing out of which he afterwards won in competition. He 
was thus induced to study the features of Roman architec- 
ture, which henceforth exerted a considerable influence over 
his works. 

Brunelleschi's chief works are : 

The dome of Florence Cathedral, 1420 (No. no). 

The Church of St. Spirito, Florence. (Built after his 

The Chapel of the Pazzi at Florence, 1420. 

The Pitti Palace, 1440. 

ALBERTI (1404- 1 47 2) 

was a scholar deeply interested in classical literature. 
His works exhibit more decorative treatment, and are less 
massive than Brunelleschi's (compare the Ruccellai and 
Pitti Palaces). He wrote a work on architecture, " De Re 
.42dificatoria," which largely influenced men's minds in 
favour of the Roman style. 
His principal works are : 
Palazzo Ruccellai (1460). 

The Church of St. Francesco at Rimini (1447-1455). 

St. Andrea at Mantua (1472). 

St. Andrea is important as the type of many modern 

Renaissance churches, and consists of a single nave with 

transepts, all barrel-vaulted above a single order on a 

pedestal. Chapels, alternated with entrance vestibules, take 


the place of the customary aisles on each side of the nave. 
Over the intersection of nave with the transept is a dome, in 
the drum, or lower portion, of which are windows lighting 
the interior. The chancel is apsidal, lighted by three 
windows, which cause the entablature to be mitred round 
the pilasters of the order, which carry the lunetted half dome 
of the apse. 

The perfection of the proportions makes the interior of 
this church one of the grandest in the style. 

Note. — For Comparative Table of Florence, Rome, and 

Venice, see p. 227. 


Grandjean and Famin's "Toscane." 

" Romola," by George Eliot. (Historical Novel.) 



i. Geographical. — -The unique character of Rome as an 
influence was its prestige as the seat of an empire that had 
crumbled away. The ruins and new buildings are impor- 
tant, on account of their more than local influence. 

ii. Geological. -^The remains of old Rome, such as the 
Colosseum and the Pantheon, formed the quarry from which 
much of^:e material for the Renaissance buildings was 
extracted. ' 

iii. Climate. — Refer to previous sections (pages5i, 182). 

iv. Religion. — From the time of the Council of Con- 
stance, 141 5, the popes take a more prominent position as 
Italian princes. During the fifteenth century the popes 
greatly extended their temporal dominions in Italy. One 
party hoped that Italian unity would be eftected under the 
papal sway. Caesar Borgia, nephew to Alexander VI., pro- 


posed to effect this, by absorbing the Italian states as one 
would eat an artichoke — leaf by leaf. Julius II. besieged 
Bologna in person, as sacred and secular capacities were 
often obscured in the same pope. The Jesuits, founded 
in the later Renaissance period, existed to counter-work 
the Reformation, by rendering the papal influence universal. 
See below. 

V. Social and Political. — In Rome a central govern- 
ment existed, and in consequence party spirit wos checked, 
thus we do not find the same fortified palaces as at Florence. 
Rome was the home of the old classic traditions, which would 
naturally exert great influence in any new development. 

During the fifteenth century the popes were temporal 
princes, and great patrons of art and learning. Splendid 
new palaces and churches were erected, and the decoration 
of old ones was carried on. A school of artists and work- 
men was created who afterwards spread abroad the style of 
the Renaissance in other parts of Italy and beyond. 

vi. Historical. — During the absence of the popes at 
Avignon, the factions of the barons continued unchecked, 
except during the brief rule of Rienzi's republican state, 
1347. The return of the popes took place in 1376 under 
Gregory XL The scandal of rival popes at Rome and 
Avignon was terminated in 141 5 by the Council of Con- 
stance, after which Rome rapidly gained in wealth and 
prestige. Julius II., a warlike and ambitious pope, extended 
the temporal power, and founded the new S. Peter's and the 

Spanish influence became powerful, and was not always 
exerted for good. It was replaced by French influence, 
which was strong under Louis XIV. Then the growth of 
the power of Austria was felt throughout the Peninsula, 
until the rise of national feeling which, though checked in 
1848, led in 1870 to Rome becoming the capital of New 
Italy. This remarkable revolution was effected without 
Rome ceasing to be the headquarters of the papacy. 



The classic orders were largely used in the facades and 
courtyards (Nos. 119, 120), and a general attempt at correct- 
ness and conformity to the ideas of ancient Roman archi- 
tecture prevailed. The size and simplicity of the palaces of 
Rome produce an effect of dignity (No. 119). 

The principle which animated architects in the later 
school was that of unity, which they endeavoured to attain 
by making a whole building appear to be of a single storey ; 
for this reason, two or more storeys are included under an 
order of pilasters, which is sometimes crovyjied by an attic, 
but never by another superimposed order. Arcuation is 
only sparingly introduced, except it be in the form of 
tiers of arcades, in imitation of the Colosseum. 


Note. — It will be most convenient and useful to the student 
if we consider this school under its successive leaders, 
* beginning with Bramante. 

BR AM ANTE (1444-15 14) 

was the first Roman architect of note-; he was educated as 
a painter under Andrea Mantegna, and was probably a 
pupil of Alberti. He was a Florentine by birth, but 
studied at Rome, first practising in the city of Milan, and in 
the dominions of its duke. His earlier works, as, for 
example, the choir of St. Maria della Grazie at Milan, are 
essentially in a transition style with Gothic tendencies, 
while his later works exhibit classical " correctness." 

Ex. : The Cancellaria Palace, 1508. 

The Giraud Palace (No. 119), 1503. 

The Belvedere Court of the Vatican, 1506. 

The small tempietto in the cloister of St. Pietro in 
Montorio (1502) is a perfect gem of architecture. 

Bramante's works of the middle period exhibit especially 


delicatemouldings, andgreat refinement in carvingand detail; 
thus he uses flat pilaster^ and circular-headed openings, 
framed by square lines. ^lis "Ultima Maniera " is seen 
in the bold and grand designs for the Courts of Law (never 
finished)'''n^ar the Tiber, and in his " projects " for St. 

An article on " The School of Bramante," by Baron von 
Geymiiller, which appeared in the R.I.B.A. Transactions, 
1891, is interesting, as tending to show the enormous in- 
fluence which Bramante, who may be called the " con- 
tinuator " of the style of Alberti, exerted on the development 
of the Renaissance in Rome and in every European country. 
It is well worth careful reading. 


Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536) was the architect of 
the Villa Farnese at Rome. 

Holford House, Park Lane, London, by Vulliamy, is 
founded on this design. 

Also the Massimi Palace, Rome, an example full of re- 
finement and beauty, both in design and detail. The five- 
domed church at Todi, Perugia, is ascribed to his influence. 
Few architects of the school were so well trained, and able 
to execute works so finished in detail, whether of plan, sec- 
tion, or elevation. 

Ant. di Sangallo (d. 1546) erected the Farnese Palace 
at Rome (No. 120). This is the grandest of all the examples 
of the school. It is executed in brick walling with travertine 
dressings from the Colosseum. 

We may note especially the absence of pilasters to each 
storey, which appear only as frames to the windows. Each 
storey is well marked horizontally by projecting string 
courses. The grand crowning cornice was added later by 
Michael Angelo, but was a special feature in the design, from 
the first. 

The internal open court ("cortile") is in the style of the 
Colosseum ; a reduced cast of part of the same may be seen 
at the Crystal Palace Italian Renaissance Court. 

Raphael (1483- 15 20) was the nephew and pupil of 







o °^.S 



15raniante. Authorities differ as to his exact responsibility 
for the designs ascribed to him. 

His works at Rome : He was engaged on St. Peter's (but 
tlid little), and designed the fac^ade of .San Lorenzo. 

His works at Florence : The Pandolfini Palace, erected 
in 1530 (ten years after his death). 

The excavation of the Baths of Titus gave Raphael an 
■ [iportunity of studying the interior decoration of ancient 
Roman buildings. The use of hard stucco, combined 
with painted work, was one of the things learnt by him 
from these remains. The surface of the vaulting was found 
to be painted with studies from the vegetable kingdom, with 
figures of men and animals; and with such objects as vessels 
and shields, all blended together in fanciful schemes, ren- 
dered pleasing by bright colouring. 

The designs for the decoration of the Loggie at the 
Vatican, which he carried out, were based on these Roman 

Giulio Romano (1492-1546) was a pupil of Raphael, 
and was the architect of the Villa Madama at Rome, and of 
work at Mantua, including his masterpiece the Palazzo del 
Te. This latter is a one-storey building, decorated with the 
Doric order. It is quadrangular in plan, and comprises large 
saloons round a central court. The recessed arcaded facade 
to the garden is remarkable, and, as a whole, the design is 
perhaps the nearest approach made on the part of a Renais- 
sance architect to reproduce the features of a Roman villa. 

VIGNOLA (1507-1573) 

exercised great influence by his writings. He was the author 
of "The Five Orders of Architecture," and the architect of 

The Villa of Pope Julius at Rome, now the Etruscan 

The Pentagonal Palace at Caprarola (see page 236). 

The two small cupolas at St. Peter's. 

The municipal palace at Bologna (unfinished). 

Being taken back to France by Francis I., he exercised 
a great influence on the development of French Renais- 
sance architecture. 


MICHAEL ANGELO (1474-1564) 

a Florentine, famous sculptor, and painter of the roof of 
the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican in a.d. 1508, also turned 
his attention, late in life, to architecture. He finished the 
Farnese Palace, and carried out the dome of St. Peter's (see 
below). Perhaps his best work is the reconstruction of the 
Palace of the Capitol (No. 121), a grand example of a one- 
order building. Reckless detail mars all his architecture. 

His principal work at Florence is the Medici Chapel, and 
the Sacristy and Laurentian Library at S. Lorenzo. 

St, Peter's at Rome (1506-1626). 

// is thought to be desirable^ and probably ivill be of use to 
give here a sketch of the general scheme of the construction 
of this builditig^ 7vith various data. 

• In plan (outline plan, No. 125) it is a Greek cross, the 
later extension of the nave and aisles toward the west, 
which practically brings the whole scheme to a Latin cross, 
IS excused, solely as inclosing the whole of the area of the 
previously existing church. The nave consists of four bays 
of immense size ; the central crossing is covered by the 
dome, the short transepts are terminated by ^semicircular 
apses, the eastern arm being precisely similar. ^The high 
altar stands under the dome, within a baldachino, over the 
alleged tomb of St. Peter. A vestibule at the west end 
ej^nds the whole width of the church. 

' The interior (No. 122) has onegiganticorder of Corinthian 
pilasters, crowned with semicircular barrel vaults. The walls 
are faced with plaster, and coloured to imitate marble, pro- 
ducing a rich though false effect ; -the dome is beautifully 
decorated in mosaic, and reminds us of Pope's words : 

" No single parts unequally surprise, 
All comes united to th' admiring eyes." 

The exterior (No. 123), roughly executed in travertine, 
has an immense order of Corinthian pilasters, with an attic 
surrounding the entire building. ;The view of the dome is 
entirely cut off, except at a distance, behind the screen 


wall of the now extended nave. A good idea of the building, 
in its general distribution, is to be obtained from the model 
at the Crystal Palace, in which, however, as in most draw- 
ings of the church, the detail is rendered less offensive by 
Its smaller scale. 

Memoranda : 

1506. — Bramante was the original architect, and formu- 
lated a design in the form of a Greek cross with 
entrances at west end. Foundation stone laid. 

1514. — Death of Bramante. 

15 1 3. — Sangallo (d. 15 16), Raphael, Fra Giocondo 
(d. 15 15), are intrusted with superintendence of 
the work. Division of opinion exists as to altering 
original plan to a Latin cross. 

1520. — Death of Raphael. 

1520. — Baldassare Peruzzi appointed architect, but dies 
1536. The capture of Rome disorganized all artistic 

1536. — Sangallo succeeds him as architect. Proposes 
a picturesque design of many orders, with a central 
dome and lofty campanili. 

1546. — Michael Angelo appointed architect. He rejected 
the innovations of Sangallo, restored the design to 
a Greek cross, simplified the form of the aisles, in 
which process the masterly planning, by Bramante, 
of the accessories to the dome, which were to give 
scale to the interior, disappeared, and strengthened 
the pillars of the dome, which had shown signs of 
weakness. He planned and commenced the con- 
struction of the great dome, the drum of which he 
completed, and at his death (1564) left drawings and 
models, forthecompletionof the workup to thelantern. 

1564. — The building of the church was continued by 
Giacomo della Porta, and Vignola, who added the 
two smaller domes. These, excellent in themselves, 
are ineffective in relation to the whole mass. 

1 606. — Carlo Maderno, instructed by Paul V., lengthened 
the nave to form a Latin cross, and erected the present 
contemptible facade. 


1 66 1. — Bernini erected the fourfold colonnades in- 
closing the piazza in front. 

" With arms wide open to embrace 
The entry of the human race." 


In Baron von Geymliller's book, mentioned below, there 
is a plan, with the portions of separate dates coloured 
differently, which is very interesting, and also a comparison 
drawn between the fundamental principles of design which 
characterize each scheme. 

Comparative plans (No. 124) : 

St. Peter's Milan. 

St. Paul's. 

Sta. Sophia 


(No. 125). 

(No. 4«). 

(No. 127). 

Area in sq. yds. 

18,000 10,000 




Length in yards. 

205 148 



, '56 

Pantheon (No. 


I- lorence. 

I Ham. of dome. 

13S ft. 142 ft. 6. in. 

100 ft. 

106 ft. 9 in. 

134 ft. 6 in 

Ah^te. — For Comparative Table of Florence, Rome, 
and Venice, see p. 227, 


Geymiiller, " Les Projets primitifs pour la Basilique de 

St. Pierre." 

Percier and Fontaine's "Rome." 

T^etarouilly's " Edifices de Rome Moderne." 

" Detail and Ornament of the Italian Renaissance," by 

G. J. Oakeshott. 

" Rienzi," by Lord Lytton. (Historical Novel.) 


" Underneath day's azure eyes, 
Ocean's nursling, Venice lies, 
\ peopled labyrinth of walls, 
Amphitrite's destined halls, 
Which her hoary sire now paves 
With his blue and beaming waves. 


Lo ! the sun upsprinirs behind, 

Broad, red, radiant, half-reclined 

On the level, quivering line 

Of the water's crystalline ; 

And before that tlream of light, 

As within a furnace bright. 

Column, tower, and dome, and spire 

Shine like obelisks of fire. 

Panting with inconstant motion 

From the altar of dark ocean 

To the sapphire-tinted sky." — Shellev. 


i. Geographical. — The greatness of Venice was founded 
in earlier times on her oriental commerce, due to her im- 
portant geographical position. The effect of this commercial 
prosperity is visible well into Renaissance times. The history 
of the Venetian state was always influenced by the proximity 
of the sea, and the peculiar formation of the coast. 

ii. Geological. — The structure of Venice, as a city 
founded in the sea ; its churches, palaces, and houses being 
set upon piles, in a shallow lagoon, had an important 
influence on its art. 

ill. Climate. — Favours out-door life. The heat in 
summer is great, though tempered by sea breezes. The 
open top storeys, called belvederes, exist in many houses. 
The northern position renders chimneys more prominent 
than in other Italian cities. 

iv. Religion. — Venice continued to maintain a semi- 
independence of the Pope, due to her political necessities 
in those days of the growing temporal power. Strong loyalty 
to the State even among the clergy was manifested during 
the attempted interdict of Paul V. The learned theologian 
Paolo Sarpi (lived 155 2-1623) '^^'^s the adviser of the State 
during this crisis (1607). The tolerance of Venetian policy 
is shown by the erection of the Greek church, an interesting 
example of the local Renaissance. 

V. Social and Political. — During the whole of the 
fifteenth century, Venice was engaged in conquering the 
surrounding towns, Venetian nobles being appointed their 


The government of Venice was a republic, and the rivalry 
of the leading families led to the erection of fine and lasting 
monuments, such as the palaces which line the Grand Canal; 
and these moreover were not fortresses, as at Florence, but 
the residences of peaceable citizens. 

vi. Historical. — -In the middle of the fifteenth century 
(1453) Constantinople was taken by the Turks, and the 
supremacy of Venice in the East was undermined. By the 
discovery of the new route to India, at the close of the 
fifteenth century, its commerce was diverted to the Portu- 
guese. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries they 
were at constant war with the Turks; eventually in 17 15 
the whole of her possessions, except in North Italy, were 
taken from her. Yet " the arts which had meanwhile been 
silently developing shed a glorious sunset over the waning 
glory of the mighty republic." 


The Renaissance movement had a very different effect 
upon the architecture of Venice from that which it pro- 
duced upon the architecture of Florence, owing to the 
different circumstances of the two cities. The Venetians 
had a beautiful type of Gothic architecture of their own, 
and, being further from Rome, were not so much under the 
influence of that city as was Florence. Therefore, between 
the periods of Gothic and fully-developed Renaissance, we 
lind a period of transition, the earlier buildings in the new 
style having Gothic in conjunction with Renaissance details. 
We may notice this, for instance, in the pointed arches of 
the Renaissance fa9ade in the courtyard of the Doge's 
I The architecture of Venice is, in general, of a lighter and 
more graceful kind than that of Florence. Colunms and 
pilasters are used freely in all designs. A special Venetian 
feature is that the windows are grouped near the centre, 
leaving. comparatively solid boundaries to the facade (No. 
128). The-fagades are comparatively flat, and have no great 
projections, in consequence of the houses being situated 


on the side of canals, ^lqcI having therefore to keep a straight 
liontage with the water! 

The rustication of "^vtlls, as at Florence, is comparatively 
unknown. The facades usually have cornices marking 
each floor (No. 128), in contrast with the great crowning 
Florentine cornice. 

The balconies (No. 128) are a graceful and important 
feature, and give light and shade to the fagade, having the 
same effect as, and taking the place of, recessing. 

The regularity of the disposition of a Venetian facade is 
described by Browning, who talks of the 

" Window just with window mating, 
Door on door exactly waiting." 

In later work, the perfection of the details is the marked 
feature of the Venetian Renaissance, as, for jnstance, in 
St. Mark's Library and the palaces by Sansovino. In Lon- 
ghena's works, and other late examples the detail becomes 
large, and projects boldly, ^^rong effects of light and shade 
are produced, and heavy rustication is used to contrast the 
basement with the order abov-elNo. 129). 



The more important buildings are : 

The Doge's Palace, commenced 14S6, in which we 
should remark the Giant's Staircase, erected by Sansovino in 
1554, situated in the courtyard of the palace. 

Note. — The Geological Museum in Piccadilly is founded 
on the design of the lower part of the courtyard facade 
of this palace. 

The Library of St. Mark, by Sansovino, the design 
of which has been followed in the Carlton Club, Pall Mall, 
was erected in 1536. (The continuation, one order higher, 
round St. Mark's square, is by Scamozzi.) 

The Zecca or Mint, erected by Sansovino, 1536. 

The Vendramini Palace (1600) (No. 128). Each 


storey has an order, the windows are semicircular, with a 
Renaissance treatment of tracery. 

The Cornaro Palace by Sansovino (1532). 

The Grimani Palace, by San Micheli (1549), and 
the Pesaro Palace, by Longhena (seventeenth century) 
(No. 129). 

In the early period. 

St. Maria dei Miracoli (1480), erected l^yPietro Lom- 
bardo, is noteworthy as having no aisles ; the choir is raised 
twelve steps above the nave, which is covered with a roof of 
semicircular form, not uncommon in Venice. It is empha- 
sized by a circular pediment on the facade. (This feature 
also occurs at S. Zaccaria, Venice.) The walls are faced in- 
ternally and externally, with different coloured marbles, 
which are delicately carved. The sacristy is beneath the ' 
raised choir. 

In the later period. 

The Church of St. Francesco della Vigna, by 

Palladio (156S), 
The Church of the Redentore, by Palladio (1576), 
The Church of St. Giorgio Maggiore, by Palladio 
(1560) (No. 130), 
are instructive, as exhibiting the difficulties of adopting the 
classic orders to buildings for modern purposes. 

The Church of S. Maria della Salute (No. 131), by 
Longhena, in 1632, is erected on the Grand Canal, and 
groups most beautifully with the surroundings. 

Plan (No. 132): An octagon with chapels projected one on 
each side, the central space being covered by a circular 
dome. Notice the buttresses (No. 131) to the central 
dome over the aisles, and how their fanciful shapes 
contribute to the effect. A secondary dome covers the 
chancel (projected on the side opposite the entrance), 
and a small tower, also carried up, contributes to the 
picturesque grouping of the exterior. 







ii ^ « * 

130. S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. 

131 S. Maria della Salute, Venice, 


22 C 


C.'icosnara's "Venezia."' 

' ' ° r y ? 7 
132. Sta. Maria iiella Salute (Plan). 


are also notable cities to the student of Renaissance archi- 
tecture, they are counted in the Venetian School. 

Vicenza is interesting as the birthplace of Palladio, 



and as the scene of his labours. Palladio indefatigably 
studied, and measured, all the Roman antiquities, as may 
be seen by the drawings in his book on architecture. His 
designs are mostly erected in brick and stucco, the lower 
storey being rusticated, and the upper ones having pilasters. 
A second method of his was to comprise two floors in the 
height of the order, to obtain scale in that feature, and unity 
and dignity in the whole composition. There are several 
examples in Vicenza of this treatment. 

The arcade surrounding and casing the mediaeval tOAvn 
hall at Vicenza, is his most famous work (No. 133). It is 
built in a beautiful stone, and is in two storeys of Doric and 

iic orders. 

*lie Villa del Capra (generally known as the Rotunda) 
near Vicenza is an example of the application of the features 
of classical architecture carried to an extreme. It is a 
square building, with a pillared portico on each face leading 
to a central rotunda, which appears externally as a low 
dome above the tiled roof which is hipped all ways from the 
angles of the main building. This building was copied by 
Inigo Jones at Chiswick, and elsewhere, both in England 
and on the Continent. 

Although Palladio's designs were mainly executed in 
mean materials, and were often never fully carried out, still 
their publication in books had a far-reaching influence on 
European architecture. 

At Verona the architect San Micheli, a man of great 
ability, erected several palaces, of which the Palazzo Pom- 
peii is the most noticeable. 

He was more or less a military architect, being the 
originator of a new system of fortification. The entrance 
gateways through the fortifications of Verona, are notable 
instances of his power of giving character to his works ; 
they are bold and original in treatment. He gave great 
extension to the use of rustication as a means of effect. 

The Palazzo del Consiglio at Verona was erected in 
1500 by Fra Giocondo, and is chiefly remarkable for the 
coloured " sgraflito work '' of the fagade. 




A. Plans. 

Florence. — The utmost simplicity and compactness, a 
style of planning adapted to town, rather than country 
buildings. — Staircases inclosed in walls vaulted by ascending 
barrel vaults. 

Rome. — More varied planning on a grander scale. Stair- 
( a->cs, circular and elliptical, with columnar supports, are 

/ ^etiice. — Where an open site permits, a broken, complex, 
and picturesque disposition is adopted, otherwise a straight 
front to the canals has to be adhered to. Staircases, de- 
veloped in a central area, and with arcades around, belong 
to this school. 

B. VV^alls. 

• Florence. — The style of fenestration and rusticated quoins 
(No. ii8); the astylar treatment is adopted, which dis- 
penses with orders and makes each storey complete in itself, 
while subordinated as a wholfc by the great top cornice. In 
pure wall treatment it is akin to Egyptian work. 

Rome. — The style of pilasters (No. 121). Storeys are 
j united by an order upon a grand scale (No. 121), several 
I storeys high. Windows become disturbing elements, with- 
1 out which the designs would have the unity of Greek 
I temples. 

Venice. — The style of columns (Nos. 128, 129). Storeys 

are defined by an order to each. Excessive separation by 

the entablatures is modified, and corrected by breaking 

them round the columns. In the multiplicity of parts the 

! style allies itself to the Roman, as in the Colosseum. 

I c. Openings. 

Florence. — Openings are small, wide-spaced, and severe 
in treatment. The typical opening is an archway in rus- 
ticated work, divided by a column carrying two minor arches, 
forming a semi-tracery head (No. 118). 

Rome. — Openings seem small in relation to the great 


order adopted (No. 121). A square-headed opening is 
treated with a framework of architrave mouldings, and later 
on with orders on a small scale, surmounted b}' pediments 
(No. 120). 

Venice. — Openings are large, numerous, and close set ; the 
arcade and colonnade, as seen in the Colosseum, are adapted 
to palace facades. The treatment of a centre and two wings, 
obtained by window spacing, is continued from previous 
periods (Nos. 128, 129). 

D. Roofs. 

F/ofence. — Flat pitch-tiled roofs are sometimes shown 
(No. 118). 

Rome. — Rarely visible (Nos. 119, 120). 

Fd';//r(?.— Balustrades preferred (No. 133). 

Florence. — Vaults, raking vaults to staircases, and simple 
cross or tunnelled waggon-vaults in halls, generally frescoed. 

Rome. — Vaults of a similar kind are more elaborated, 
treated with coffering or stucco modelling, after the style 
of the then newly-discovered Baths of Titus. Domes are 
universal in churches (No. 123). 

Venice. — Vaults. Pictorial effect is attempted in halls 
and staircases. Domes are grouped with towers in churches 
(Nos. 130, 131). 

E. Columns. 

Florence. — Early examples do not have the orders (No. 
118), though the columns are used to arcades, the arches 
springing direct from the capitals. 

Rome. — The application of the orders on a great scale is 
the motif oi the style. In their use, the scale of openings, 
and the internal necessities of the building, are not regarded, 
and even such features as balustrades are not regulated by 
use, but by the system of proportion to the order employed 
(No. 121). 

Venice. — The problem of successive tiers of orders is 
worked out (Nos. 128, 129); projecting columns are pre- 
ferred to pilasters, and entablatures are usually broken 
round these projections. 

F. Mouldings. 
Florence. — Mouldings are few and simple. Those be- 
tween storeys are reduced to the minimum, to give full 


effect to the grand crowning cornice, whose details are l)ased 
on classic examples (No. 118). 

Rome. — Close adaptation of the features of the classical 
orders marks the Roman style (No. 119), until Michael 
Angelo, and his followers, despising the sound methods of 
the earlier architects, introduced their arbitrary details. 

Venice. — Prominence of detail is characteristic of the 
late Renaissance works in Venice ; entablatures have deep 
sofifits and keystones, etc., and great projection, while 
spandrels have figures in high relief (No. 129). 

G. Decoration. 

Flore7ice. — Decoration, such as carving and sculpture, is 
collected in masses, which contrast with the plain wall 
surfaces. Note the great stone shields at the angle of the 
palaces (No. 118). 

Rome. — Stands midway between Florentine and Venetian 
work, having more variety than prevails in the sternness of 
the former, and less exuberance than is found in the latter. 

Venice. — Decoration is equally spread throughout the 
facade. Every spandrel has its figure, and the high relief 
of sculpture competes with the architectural detail in pro- 
minence (No. 129). 


Although these cities formed no distinct school, as 
Florence, Rome, and Venice, there were many noteworthy 
buildings erected in them. 


Milan was, as it is now, one of the richest and most 
populous of Italian towns. 

Brick and terra-cotta were the materials chiefly to hand, 
and were employed in the Church of S. Maria della 
Grazie by Bramante, and in the great courtyard of the 
Ospidale Grande ' by Filarete, a Florentine. Both these 
buildings possess a considerable amount of Gothic feeling; 

' 1457- 


the detail is delicately and richly carved, and is very suitable 
to the material employed. 

The powerful family of the Visconti greatly encouraged 
art, and commenced the Cathedral of Milan, and the western 
fa9ade,^ of the Certosa at Pavia, near Milan, wiiich is 
probably the most important of the early Renaissance crea- 
tions. It is executed in marble. The leading lines are 
essentially Lombardian Gothic, clothed with Renaissance 
details. The arcaded galleries, the niches with statues 
executed by the greatest sculptors of the day, and the 
wealth of beautifully executed detail, make it one of the 
richest and most perfect specimens of the architect and 
sculptor's art. Consult "Architecture Italienne," by Callet 
and Lesueur. 


Alessi (1500- 1 57 2) was the principal Genoese architect, 
and he erected many of the more important buildings 
in the city. The building materials to hand were brick, 
which was not used as such, but covered with stucco, to 
resemble stone work. 

The Genoese buildings are remarkable especially for 
the entrance courts, the arrangement of the vestibules, 
courtyards, and flights of steps ; advantage being taken of 
the sloping sites, to produce beautiful vistas of terraces and 
hanging gardens. 

The Genoese buildings have their basements generally 
rusticated ; pilasters are freely introduced as a decorative 
feature ; while the facades are crowned by a bold projecting 
cornice, supported by consoles, the depth of the topmost 
storey, whose windows occupy the square intervals between 
these brackets. Many of the palaces are painted wholly in 
one colour, and receive their name from it, as the Palazzo 
Bianco (white), Palazzo Rosso (red). This deep rich colour- 
ing, with the help of the Italian sun, gives them a very 
bright appearance. Consult " Modern Palaces of Genoa," 
by P. P. Rubens ; Gauthier's " Genoa." 

' 1473- 



The Rococo, or Baroco, style is a debased application to 
architecture of Renaissance features. Such work is to be 
distinguished from the mixtures of certain forms of the 
early Renaissance, when the style was commencing, because 
the Rococo period, coming after the reign of a highly 
systematized classical style, represents an anarchical reaction. 
Sinuous frontages, broken curves in plan and elevation, 
and a strained originality in detail, are the characteristics of 
the period. Columns are placed in front of pilasters, and 
cornices made to break round them. Broken and curved 
pediments and twisted columns are also features of the style. 
In the interiors, the ornamentation is carried out to an extra- 
ordinary degree, without regard to fitness or suitability, and 
consists of exaggerated and badly-designed detail, often 
over-emphasized by gilding. These features are specially 
to be noticed in the Jesuit churches throughout Italy and 
Europe. This style, commencing at the time when the move- 
ment in religion connected with the Jesuits was in progress, 
was adopted by them for its essentially modern character, 
and its almost universal extension is a monument to their 

Note. — The attentive student will trace the progress of 
the Renaissance movement, the application of classical 
ideas to modern forms, beneath the trappings of bad 

Carlo Maderno (1556-1639), Bernini (1589-1680) 
and Borromini (1599-1667), are among the more famous 
who practised this debased form of art. 



i. Geographical. — See previous sections, and note also 
that France has now become more clearly defined in its 
boundaries, and hereafter, in spite of the conquests of 
Louis XIV., the race does not permanently extend its 

ii. Geological. —Refer back to pp. 1 19 and 164. Note 
that Paris is built in a quarry, so to speak, of a fine-grained 
building stone. As London is a brick, so Paris is a stone 

iii. Climate. — Refer back to pp. 119 and 164. 

iv. Religion. — The Reformation maintained practically 
no hold in France, the old order remaining until the end of 
the eighteenth century. As, moreover, the supply of churches 
erected during the mediaeval period proved adequate, it is 
the domestic work which takes the lead in this period. 
Thus the Louis XIV., etc., style, which had an universal 
influence upon interiors, and furniture, had little effect upon 
churches. The Jesuit style (p. 231) prevailed in those 
built during this period. 

V. Social and Political. — Paris at this time was the 
capital of a compact, and rapidly consolidating kingdom, 
and from Paris emanated any movement, not only in archi- 
tecture, but also in science and literature. The invasion of 
Italy by Charles VIII. in 1494, and by Francis I. in 1527, 
marks the distribution of Italian artists and workmen over 
Europe, and more especially France, many returning in the 
train of the French kings. x\raong the chief of the artists 
were Leonardo da Vinci, Cellini, Serlio, Vignola, and 
Cortana. A band of Italians journeying from place to place 



was responsible for much of the picturesque early Renais- 
sance, south of the Loire. 

vi. Historical. — The English are driven from France 
in 1453, and the accession of Louis XL in a.d. 146 i 
practically leads to the consolidation of France into one 
kingdom by the reconciliation of the Duke of Burgundy, etc. 
During the first half of the sixteenth century Italy became 
the battlefield of Europe. In 1494 Charles VIII. of France, 
claiming the kingdom of Naples, marches through Italy. In 
1508 Louis joins the league of Cambray formed against 
Venice. Florence is the ally of France during all this 
period. Francis I. is defeated, and taken prisoner by the 
Spaniards at the Battle of Pavia, 1525. In these wars the 
French kings failed, it will be seen, in their actual object, 
but they were thus brought into contact with the superior 
civilization of Italy, and drawn into the Renaissance move- 
ment. In their own country they were becoming more 
absolute. From 155S to the end of the century, the religious 
wars, between the Huguenots and Catholics, distracted the 
country. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew took place at 
Paris, 1572, after which an emigration of Huguenots to 
England took place. During the reign of Louis XIIL, 
(1610-1643) Cardinal Richelieu strengthens the royal power. 
Cardinal Mazarin continues his policy, and Louis XI \^., 
ascending the throne in 1643, becomes an absolute monarch. 
His conquests, in the Netherlands and Germany, lead to a 
general coalition against him, and to his great defeat at the 
hands of Marlborough. The Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes in 1685 leads to a further emigration of Protestants 
to England. In the reign of Louis XV. (17 15-1774) the 
evil eftects of despotism, and bad government, became more 
marked, and the writers Voltaire, Rousseau, and others 
weaken authority by their attacks, and prepare the ground 
for the great revolution that began in 1792- 1793. 





A direct return to classic forms 

Principal buildings erected in 

Severe classic disposition not 
only appropriate but neces- 
sary in the narrow streets 
of Florence and Rome, or 
on straight water-ways of 

Influence of ancient Rome and 
her buildings apparent in 
greater purity of detail. 

A street front in Florence, 
Venice, or Rome is only seen 
from the street, and the 
architectural features are 
often in fact applique^ with- 
out reference to what was 

— behind (No. 128). 
Predominant characteristics 

- are : stateliness and hori- 

Early buildings are princi- 
pally churches, in conse- 
quence of the comparative 
fewness of these buildings 
erected in the Middle Ages. 
It was essentially a church- 
building age, although the 
number of Italian palaces of 
the epoch was very large. 


A period of transition in 
which Renaissance details 
were grafted on to Gothic 
forms. Ex. : Church of St. 
Eustache (No. 137), Paris, 
Chateau of Blois (No. 134). 

Principal buildings erected in 
the country, mostly on the 
banks of the Loire, being 
palaces built for royalty and 
nobihty, as Chambord (No. 

The picturesque disposition of 
Gothic origin, more in keep- 
ing with the country sur- 
roundings, where the chief 
buildings were erected. 

Influence of Rome less appa- 
rent, partly because of dis- 
tance and association. 

A country chateau is seen on 
all sides, and the importance 
of a picturesque grouping 
from every point of view is 
apparent (No. 135). 

Predominant characteristics 
are picturesqueness, and a 
tendency to Gothic verti- 

Early buildings are princi- 
pally chateaux for the 
nobility. Francis I. was a 
monarch with literary and 
artistic tendencies. The 
enormous number of the 
churches of the Middle 
Ages sufficed. It was es- 
sentially -X palace-building 

134- Chateau de Blois, Francois i'"'' Staircaise. 




The country houses of the The chateaux on the Loire 

nobles in the Venetian terri- are irregular Gothic castles, 

tory, in the style of Falladio, withacoating of Renaissance 

arc symmetrical and stately, detail (No. 135). 
with no traces of Gothic in- 



The style may be divided up into periods, or a chrono- 
logical review of the principal buildings may be taken. We 
propose the latter, with just a note on the principal points to 
be observed in study, and the general direction of the 
development of the style. 

The Chateau de Blois (No. 134) is one of the more 
important examples, in which note the pilaster treatment of 
the facade, the mullioned windows showing the preference 
for the square section of mullion, the rich crowning cornice 
and roof dormers, which are elaborately carved. The shell 
ornament, introduced from Venice, is largely employed. In 
the view given of the famous staircase, notice the letter F 
among the carved balusters, and in the bosses to the vault- 
ing; also the repetition of the carving of the salamander, the 
emblem of Francis I. 

The Palace at Fontainebleau was erected for 
Francis I., and Vignola seems to have been engaged on it. 
The student should notice the remarkable irregularity of its 
plan. Contrary to Blois, the chief interest of this ex- 
ample lies in the sumptuous interiors, as in the saloons 
decorated by Primaticcio. The exterior is remarkably 

The Chateau de Chambord (No. 135) is one of the 
most famous erected in the Loire district, in central France, 
and possesses a semi-fortified character. The traditional 
circular towers of defence, roofed with slate cones, are incor- 
porated in a palace design infused with Italian detail. These 
conical roofs are broken up, where possible, by rich dormers 
and tall chimneys, which give to the building its characteristic 



confusion, yet richness, of sky-line. The central portion, 
corresponding to the keep of an English castle, is sur- 
rounded, and protected on three sides, by buildings inclosing 
a courtyard ; the fourth side is defended by a moat. The 
central feature, or donjon, is square on plan, with four halls 
as lofty as the nave of a church, tunnel-vaulted with coffered 
sinkings; at the junction of these halls is the famous double 
staircase, built up in a cage of stone, whose lantern crowning 
is the central object of the external grouping. The small- 
ness of scale in regard to mouldings, the flatness of the pro- 
jection to the pilasters, the Gothic feeling throughout the 
design, especially the high-pitched roofs, the ornamented 
chimneys, and the vertical treatment of the features generally, 
make this example one of the most characteristic of Early 
French Renaissance buildings. 

It may be compared with advantage to the pentagonal 
semi-fortress of Caprarola, by Vignola, which is situated on 
the spur of a mountain looking down into the valley, giving 
one a recollection of Hadrian's tomb in mass and outline, 
while internally the circular court is suggestive of the 
Colosseum fagade at Rome. 

The Louvre at Paris may be taken as the most im- 
portant building in the style. Its construction lasted from 
the time of Francis I. to Louis XIV., and the building 
exhibits, in consequence, a complete history of the progressive 
stages of the French Renaissance manner. 

The skeleton history of the building is as follows : 

Pierre Lescot, the first architect, commenced the work in 
1540, under Italian influence. The only courtyard in Italy, 
to which we can compare that of the Louvre, is the Great 
Hospital at Milan, commenced in 1456 by the architect 
Filarete. This is formed of open colonnades in two storeys, 
due no doubt to climatic influences, whereas the Louvre is 
throughout of solid walling, broken up only by pilasters and 
windows, etc. 

The general design of the Louvre consists of two storeys 
and an attic, arranged round a courtyard, 400 feet square. 
The lower order is of Corinthian, the upper of Composite 
pilasters, and an order of pilasters of less height is provided 
for the attic storey. 





-t 5r 


The sculptured work by Jean Goujon is especially note- 

Under Henri IV". the gallery facing the Seine was 
erected (1595-1603) by Du Cerceau, and shows the de- 
based inclinations of the period. Corinthian columns 
run through two storeys, the entablature is pierced for 
admission of windows, and triangular or circular pediments 
are placed over pilasters, without any reference to construc- 
tion or fitness. The details are coarsely carved throughout. 

Under Louis XIV. Perrault added (1670) the eastern 
{, which consists of a solid-looking basement, above 
which is an open colonnade of Corinthian columns. 

Under Napoleon III. the Louvre was finished by 
Visconti, during 185 2- 185 7, by the addition of the facades 
north and south of the Place Louis Napoleon, which form 
one of the most pleasing specimens of modern French art, 
in which a certain richness and dignity are added to the 
picturesqueness of the earlier periods. 

The building of the Tuileries was commenced for 
Catherine de Medici, from designs by Philibert Delorme, 
in 1564, and the problem of effecting a proper junction 
between the two palaces was a crux of long standing because 
of the want of parallelism between them — this junction was 
finally effected under Napoleon III. as mentioned above. 
The destruction of the Tuileries has rendered the connecting 
galleries architecturally ineffective. 

The Luxembourg Palace was erected by De Brosse, 
in A.D. 1611 for Marie de Medici of Florence, the intention 
being to imitate the simple and bold treatment of Florentine 
buildings. In this respect note the similarity of treatment 
to the courtyard of the Pitti Palace, at Florence. 

The Palace at Versailles was commenced by Jules 
Hardouin Mansard, in 1664, for Louis XIV., and is remark- 
able only for the uniformity and tameness of its design. 

Plan and Arrangement of the typical French 

We have already remarked on the number of chateaux 
erected during the early periods of the Renaissance in 
France, due to social and political causes. 



The chateau at Bury, near Blois, is typical (No. 136) of 
the majority of these buildings, and is shown in comparison 
with an English typical plan of the same period (No. 149). 

By referring to the plan given, it will be noticed that it 

136. Chateau de Bury (Plan). 

consists of a large square court, in front of which is a screen 
wall, solid externally, but with a colonnade facing the 
court. The entrance is in the centre of this wall, and is 
provided with a porte-cochhx, or carriage entrance. The 
screen wall is flanked by towers, circular externally, and 




square internally, and attached to these, and formmg two 
sides of the court, are long wings containing the servants' 
apartments and offices on one side, and offices and stabling 
on the other. These are connected at the further end of the 
( Durt with the main building, in which the family resided, and 
which contained the reception rooms. Behind this main 
building was the garden, and in the centre of one side is 
placed the chapel. Each of the side wings to the court 
was generally one storey lower than the main building, 
which contained the family apartments. 

The above description applies equally to French town 
houses, up to the present day, with slight modifications 
dependent on site and local necessities. 

Note. — In French country houses the windows face in- 
ternally into a courtyard, as in the ancient Roman atrium 
(the courtyard responding to the atrium), whereas in 
English country houses after the time of Henry VII. 
the windows all face outwards, a courtyard being an 


St. Eustache, Paris (a.d. 1532) (No. 137). In plan, 
it is a typical five-aisled Gothic church, with circular 
apsidal end. As to the exterior, it has high roofs, a kind of 
Renaissance tracery to the windows, flying buttresses, pin- 
nacles, deeply-recessed portals, and other Gothic features, 
clothed with Renaissance detail. The church is, in fact, laid 
out on Gothic lines, but clothed with detail inspired from 
Italian sources. 

St. Etienne du Mont, Paris (a.d. 1537). The same 
remarks apply as to St. Eustache; to be specially noted is the 
famous rood-screen, with double staircases and carved balus- 
trading in Renaissance detail, illustrating the highly deve- 
loped technical ability of the masons of the period. 

The Dome of the Invalides at Paris (1680-1706), by 
Jules Hardouin Mansard, shows no Gothic tendency, and the 
principles of the Italian Renaissance are paramount. 

In plan it is a Greek cross, with the corners filled in so as 
to make it a square externally. The dome (92 feet in 
circumference) rests on eight piers. It is provided with 


windows in the drum, or lower portion, above which is an 
interior dome, with a central opening ; over this comes a 
second or middle dome, with painted decorations, lighted 
by windows ; lastly, over all is an external dome and 
lantern of wood, covered with lead. 

Notice the difference at St. Paul's, London (No. 154),' 
where an intermediate brick cone supports the external 
stone lantern. 

The Pantheon (1775) at Paris (No. 138) was erected 
from the designs of Soufflot. In plan (No. 1 26) it is a Greek 
cross. Four halls surround a central one, above which rises 
a dome, 69 feet in diameter. The dome is a triple one (No. 
139), i.e., one with three skins, as that of the Invalides, 
mentioned above, but the outer dome is of stone covered 
with lead. 

The interior has an order of Corinthian columns with an 
attic over. The vaulting is ingenious, and elegance has 
been obtained by a tenuity of support, which at one time 
threatened the stability of the edifice. Frescoes by the fore- 
most French artists of to-day have been placed upon the 

The exterior (No. 138) has a Corinthian colonnade, or 
portico at the west end, the cornice to which is carried round 
the remainder of the fagades, which have a blank wall 
treatment, the light being obtained for the nave by a clere- 
story over the aisles. 

The Madeleine at Paris was erected by the architect 
Vignon in 1804. Externally, it shows a direct imitation of 
ancient Roman architecture, and is a further step towards 
absolute copyism. 

In plan, it is an octastyle peripteral temple, 350 feet by 
147 feet. The order has a defect, which often occurs in 
French work, viz., that the columns are built of small 
courses of stone, the joints of which confuse the lines of the 
fiuting. The architraves also are formed into flat arches 
with wide joints. 

The interior is fine and original, the cella, as it would be 
called in classic work, being divided into an apse, half- 
domed, and three bays, covered by flat domes, through the 
eyes of which is obtained all the light for the church. 






We now treat in a comparative manner the essential dif- 
ferences between Italian and French Renaissance. 

It must be borne in mind that the subject is treated 
generally, and that the comparisons state what usually is the 
fact, although in many cases features might be found, which 
do not exactly correspond with the type in every pariicular. 


• Plans. — The great feature 
of Italian houses is the cor- 
tilc% or central open court- 
yard, which has, in all impor- 
tant examples, a colonnade or 
arcade round it. It is usual 
for the main wall, on the first 
floor, to stand on the piers 
or columns of this aisle, 
giving ampler space for the 
important rooms, which, it 
must be recalled, are in 
Italy on the first floor, called 
the " piano nobile." 

H. Walls. — Straight fagades 
varied by orders, arcades, or 
window-dressings (Nos. 119, 
128). are crowned by a deep 
cornice at the top. Atdcs 
are rare, but an open top 
story " Belvedere " is a fea- 
ture in houses of all classes. 
— Brickwork is used in large 
and rough masses with ashlar 
facing, and attention is con- 
centrated on the window 
dressings or orders. Later 
examples, as at Genoa and 
Vicenza, are in plaster. 

C. Openings. — Symmetry 
regulates the position of 


A. Plans— In the chateaux 
of the early period, the 
castles of the previous ages 
influenced both plan and de- 
sign. Some examples are on 
the site of, or are additions to 
such castles. Chambord may 
be counted as an attempt at 
an ideal plan of a mansion, 
half castle, and half palace. 
The typical house plan (No. 
136) in the towns is a main 
block, and two lower wings 
inclosing a courtyard cut oft" 
from the street by an open or 
closed screen wall. 

B. Walls. — The gables, and 
prominent stone dormers of 
the early period (Nos. 134, 
135^ &i^'e place gradually to 
pedimented and balustraded 
elevations. The mansard 
roof lends itself to pavilions 
which mark the angles of the 
fagades, while the centre has 
often an attic. Chimneys 
continue to be marked fea- 
tures, though less orna- 
mented. Stone continues 
the chief material, though 
red brick is sometimes com- 
bined with it. 

C. Openings. — In early de- 
signs the mullions and tran- 



openings (Nos. 128, 129), 
and in late examples the use 
of the classic orders, rather 
than convenience, deter- 
mines their position. Early 
designs are often astylar, the 
openings are the features 
upon which all the detail is 
concentrated. In the later 
buildings greater plainness 
prevails to give effect to the 
orders. It should be noted 
that in the Rococo period a 
return was made often to the 
astylar principle, when ex- 
cessive prominence and ex- 
aggeration of detail marks 
the window dressings. As 
the attic is rare in Italian 
work, on account of the use 
of the great cornice, the top 
floor openings are often 
formed into a deep band, or 
frieze. In Genoa they are 
set between great consoles, 
that give support to the main 

D. Roofs — Flat roofs, or 
nearly so, a special feature, 
for the reason that in a narrow- 
street high roofs, etc., could 
not be seen. Chimneys, if 
used at all, are masked and 
not made much of (No. 119) 
except at Venice. 

In early examples tile roofs 
are visible above the great 
cornice, the latter are nearly 
always balustraded. Domes 
are relied upon for sky-line 
in churches. The Belvedere 
gives character to villas. 

E. Columns. — Pilasters were 
either plain, or carved with 

soms of the Gothic method 
continue, though changed in 
detail (No. 134). Vertical 
coupling of windows is etfect- 
ively practised, but as the 
orders, usually one for each 
storey,come increasingly into 
use, the horizontal lines of 
their entablatures prevail. 
Symmetry in position is care- 
fully attended to in late work. 
Mezzanine floors are much 
used in large mansions with 
bull's-eye openings, the main 
apartments will then have 
an upper row of windows, 
to preserve the i-ange of 
openings externally. This 
treatment may be seen at 
Hampton Court. The attic 
is a specially French feature, 
circular windows (ceil de 
bceuf ), are often placed there 

D. Roofs. — High roofs are a 
special feature, also elabor- 
ately carved dormer windows 
and chimneys, to give sky- 
line and picturesqueness 
from a distance (Nos. 134, 

The French invention of 
the Mansard form preserves 
the roof as a feature. As it 
lends itself to pavilions, 
square or oblong, such fea- 
tures acquired great promi- 
nence, and at the Louvre 
they are veritable towers. 

E. Columns. — Pilasters, a 
decorative adjunct to Gothic 




delicatefoliage. Star-shaped 
sinkings uncommon. The 
pilaster in Italy was sooner 
used for its own sake as an 
"order" when the panelled 
decoration naturally ceased 
(No. 119). 

An " order" is often made 
to include two or more 
storeys of a building (No. 
121). In churches especially 
a single order prevails. 

F. Mouldings. — The heavy 
cornice is provided for pro- 
tection from the glare of the 
Italian sun (No. 118). In 
early examples, strings are 
of slight projection, to give 
value to the top cornice. 
Where the orders are used, 
the details assigned to each 
are used in full. Mouldings 
are usually large but well 
studied in profile. 

G. Decoration. — In Italian 
work we think of fresco and 
modelled plaster. In the 
early period, the two were 
combined as in the arab- 
esques of Raphael. When 
separated the frescoes were 
often out of scale with the 
architecture, and often de- 
void of decorative value. 
Compare theVatican, and the 
Palazzo del Te at ^lantua. 
Later stucco work sufters in 
the same way, at Venice are 
extraordinary examples of its 
abuse. Interiors, generally 
in late work, are regulated 
unduly by the features of 


features, rusticated or panel- 
led in star-shaped patterns, 
but sometimes treated with 
foliage. At Chambord, the 
sinkings are treated with 
a black inlay, slates being 
nailed in the sunk faces of 
the stonework (No. 135). 

Each storey has in general 
its own " order " or column 
(No. 134). Columns in gene- 
ral do not run through two 
storeys. The influence of 
Vignola in this respect is 

F. Mouldings. — Gothic in- 
fluence pervades the early 
work, and combinations of 
methods, classic and me- 
diaeval, in the profilings of 
mouldings are tried. Some 
examples, as at Orleans, have 
extremely small members. 
French Renaissance has 
gradually acquired a special 
character, by its treatment 
of sections. 

G. Decoration. — The wood 
panelling of Gothic times 
continues in the early period, 
often splendidly carved with 
arabesque designs, as at 
Blois. In later work it con- 
tinues but gradually loses 
the character and scale of 
the material. The Raphael 
style of decoration is intro- 
duced by Italian artists, as at 
Fontainebleau. The Tapes- 
try, etc., of the early period 
is superseded by the univer- 
sal Louis XIV. style of wood 
and stucco decoration treated 
in white and gold, a style 
which is applied completely 




classic temple architecture, 
and are often in no relation 
to their occupants and ac- 
cessories. Sculpture in later 
work loses touch with the 
decorative feeling of archi- 
tecture, and great extrava- 
gances are perpetuated, as in 
the fountains of Rome. 


to e vei7 accessory, and which 
has the merit of a certain 
fitness and unity. Sculpture 
acquires an increasing im- 
portance, and few things are 
iDetter in French modern 
work, than the constant use 
of the best available figure 
sculpture, in conjunction 
with architecture. 


Berty's " La Renaissance Monumentale en France." 
Sauvageot's " Palais et Chateaux," etc. 
Leon Palustre, "Architecture de la Renaissance." 
C. Daly, " Motives Historiques." 

"A Gentleman of France," by Stanley Weyman. (His- 
torical Novel.) 



i. Geographical. — Refer to pp. 126 and 177. 

ii. Geological. — -The absence of stone, in the great 
alluvial plains of North Germany, influenced largely the 
architecture of the period ; moulded and cut brickwork is 
used in every variety, the general scale of the detail is 
small, and surface patterns are formed in raised work. (See 
remarks on German Gothic, p. 177.) 

iii. Climate. — See under Romanesque (p. 126) and 
Gothic (p. 177). 

iv. Religion. — ]\Iartin Luther (1517-1546) attacks the 
practical abuses of certain doctrines of the Church, and 
brings about a revolution in the religious life of Germany 
(see below). Luther's translation of the Bible into High 
Dutch causes the latter to become the received tongue of 

In architecture little of great interest is produced. Old 
churches, with all their fittings, continued to be used, but 
the prominence given to preaching brought in galleries and 
congrei;ational planning. 

V. Social and Political. — The country consisted of 
a number of small kingdoms or principalities, each with its 
own capital and government. This prevented any national 
effort as in France, which was under one united head. In 
the latter part of the sixteenth century, Heidelberg was the 
centre of " Humanism," and the chief reformed seat of 
learning in Germany. 

We must also take account of the Thirty Years' War, 
ended by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. 

vi. Historical. — Charles V. succeeds to all the posses- 


sions of the Houses of Castile, Aragon, Burgundy, and the 
Low Countries. In 15 16 he obtains the two Sicihes, and 
in 15 19 he was elected to the Empire, on the death of 
Maximilian, becoming the most powerful emperor since 

In 15 1 7 Luther nails up his theses at Wittenberg, mark- 
ing the commencement of the Reformation, which was aided 
largely by the revival of learning. In 1520 he defies the 
Pope, by publicly burning the bull of excommunication, put 
forth against him by Pope Leo X. The Diet of Spires, 
1529, passes a decree against all ecclesiastical changes, 
against which Luther and the princes who followed him 
protested, hence the name Protestant. This leads in 1530 
to the Confession of Augsburg and the confederation of 
Protestant princes and cities, for mutual defence, called the 
Imalcaldic League. The war between the Emperor Charles 
V. and the Catholics against the Protestant princes, extends 
from 1546-1555, when the peace of Augsburg is concluded, 
which puts religion on terms of equality in each German 
state. The Thirty Years' War commences in 16 18, and 
was carried on in Germany between the Catholic and Pro- 
testant princes. Other princes, such as Christian IV. of 
Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, join in these 
wars on the Protestant side, under the Elector Palatine 
Frederick, who had married a daughter of James I. of 
England. Hence many Englishmen and Scotchmen serve 
in these wars. France also joins in the war for her own 
aggrandizement, under Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. 
The Peace of Westphalia, 1648, provided for religious 
equality in each state. The war had, however, utterly ruined 
Germany, and caused France to become the leading nation 
in Europe. 


The Renaissance style in Germany is chiefly remarkable 
for picturesqueness of grouping, and grotesqueness of orna- 
ment, due in a large measure, no doubt, to the traditions 
of the preceding style. 








Renaissance architecture was introduced from France, 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, while the Henri 
IV. style was in vogue, which may account for a good 
(leal of the coarseness and crudity the style possesses in 

German Renaissance differs from French work in lack of 
refinement, and in a general heaviness and whimsicality of 
treatment, while it resembles in some respects our own 
Elizabethan. It forms, in fact, a connecting link between 
Elizabethan architecture, and French Renaissance of the 
time of Henri IV. 

It may be noted that examples are mostly found in 
towns, in contradistinction to French work of the period, 
which is principally found in the country. 

The later period, which commenced at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, has been called the "Revival," and 
consisted in the adoption of classic forms in iota, without 
reference to their applicability, or appropriateness in any 
way. This movement was chiefly confined to Munich, 
Berlin, and Dresden. 



The fagade, by Otto Heinrich (1556), in Schlosshof, or 
internal courtyard of the Castle of Heidelberg (No. 140), 
is one of the most famous examples in the style, and has 
elaborately-carved string courses, with an order and its 
entablature to each storey, and classical details surrounding 
the windows. Symbolical statuary is prominently intro- 
duced, and the design suffers from over-ornamentation. 

The Cloth Hall at Brunswick is a well-known 
example, the three-quarter columns marking each floor, with 
pedestals and entablatures, are a characteristic feature ; also 
the immense gable in four storeys, each being provided with 
an order of vase-shaped pilasters, as in Elizabethan work. 
The scrolls by which the stages of the gable are contracted 
are also to be noticed. 


The porch to the Rathaus (or Town Hall) at Cologne 
(No. 141), erected in 157 1, is a purer specimen of the style. It 
consists of semicircular arcading, with detached Corinthian 
columns, and a stone vaulted roof. It will be noticed that 
the arches on the first floor are pointed, and pointed vaulting 
is also adopted. 

The Pellerhaus, Nuremberg (No. 142), is an ex- 
ample of rich domestic architecture, and shows also the 
richly-treated stepped gables, so characteristic of the period. 

The Zwinger Palace at Dresden ( 1 7 1 1 ), the Rathaus 
at Ivcipsig (1556), and the Castle at Stuttgart (1553) are 
amongst other well-known examples. 

Of the Revival in Munich, Klenze, the architect, is 
responsible for the Glyptotek, the Pinacothek, and the 
Walhalla. At Berlin, the celebrated architect Schinkel 
(1781-1841) erected the New Theatre, the Museum, and the 
Polytechnic School. In all of these buildings the great 
idea has been to copy classical forms and details, applying 
them to modern buildings. 


The new churches are few and insignificant. There was 
an abundant supply, for all practical needs, from the 
medieval period. 

The Frauenkirche of Dresden (i 726-1 745) and St. 
Michael's Church, at Munich, are among the best known, 
and exhibit a desire for wide, open spaces. The former 
especially is noticeable, being 140 feet square on plan, and 
covered with a dome 75 feet in diameter, resting on eight 
piers. It is constructed internally and externally of stone. 


A. Plans. — The French method of an internal courtyard 
is adopted. In towns, many-storied houses were erected 
with great roofs, continuing the practice of the mediaeval 
period. See below. 


The Rathhaus, Cologne. 


142. The Pellerhaus, Nuremburg. 


K. 'Walls. — Gables assume fantastic shapes ; richness is 
produced, by the application of columnar features as orna- 
ment. Brick and stone are used singly and in combination. 

c. Openings. — Oriel windows of various shapes and 
design are plentifully used, both in the facade itself, and 
on the angles of buildings. Such a feature did not appear 
at Rome, Florence, or Venice, during Renaissance times. 

Windows are large, mullioned, and crowned by grotesque, 
or scroUy pediments. In later work the usual classic 
features are adopted. 

D. Roofs. — ^The large roofs in the town houses, con- 
taining many storeys, are a prominent feature in this, as in 
the Gothic, period. Such roofs served a useful purpose, 
being used as drying-roofs for the large and frequent wash. 
There are two methods of treatment: (a) by making the 
ridge parallel to the street front, as we generally find carried 
out in Nuremberg ; (d) the other consists in making the 
ridge run at right angles to the street, as adopted in 
Landshut, in the south-east of Germany, and many other 

It will be seen that the first method allows for the display 
of many tiers of dormer windows, rising one above the 
other, and the second method permitted the use of 
fantastically-shaped gables. 

E. Columns. — The orders are freely employed in a 
licentious manner, as decorative adjuncts (No. 140), the 
storeys being marked by rich cornices ; the columns and 
pilasters are richly carved, and are often supported on 
corbels (No. 142). 

F. Mouldings. — Boldness and vigour must be set 
against the lack of refinement and purity in detail. Though 
Renaissance details are affected by the preceding work, the 
worst features of the last age of the Gothic style, such as 
interpenetration, are given up. 

G. Decoration. — Sculpture is best seen in the native 
grotesques, wherein much fancy is displayed (Nos. 140, 
142). The imitations of Italian carved pilasters are in- 
ferior, as at Heidelberg. 

The late glasswork is interesting, but the art soon died 


Fresco work was attempted during the revival at the 
beginning of the century by the Munich school. 


" Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance," by K. E. O. 



i. Geographical. — See ante (p. 173). 

ii. Geological. — Also refer back (p. 173). Note that 
brick is the characteristic material of this phase of the 

iii. Climate. — See ante (p. 173). 

iv. Religion. — The persecutions begun under Charles 
v., but most severe under the Duke of Alva, viceroy of 
Philip II. of Spain, lead to a revolt in 1568 which lasted till 

The Belgians, mainly Catholics, however, fall back to 
Spain, under the able rule of the Duke of Parma, but the 
Dutch, strongly Protestant, constitute the United Provinces, 
and finally under a republic become a great power. Their 
architectural expression is limited, the barn-like churches 
develop no features of great interest. The prominence 
given to preaching, and the demand for greater comfort 
regulate planning, but, whether for lack of interest or funds, 
nothing on a large scale is attempted. 

V. Social and Political. — In Holland the character 
of the Dutch is shown in their buildings, which are in 
general honest, matter-of-fact, and unimaginative. The gain 
of trade and riches, in consequence of the discovery of the 
New World by Columbus, was not, however, mirrored by 
the erection of monumental structures. Their daring and 
activity in trade made them one of the chief powers of 
Europe during the seventeenth century. Their extensive 
colonies gradually passed over to the English. 


vi. Historical. — The Spanish occupation of the Nether- 
lands, the consequent influence of Spanish art in the sixteenth 
century, together with the loss of liberty under Charles V., 
and the ultimate expulsion of the Spaniards in 1648, must 
all be taken into account when deahng with this subject. 
Belgium, as a Catholic country, remained under the rule of 
Spain, when Holland freed herself under the House of 


Belgian examples are wild, licentious, and picturesque, 
while sobriety, amounting often to dullness, is the character 
of Holland. Home comforts were studied, and the details of 
internal work, including furniture, were perfected. Brick 
receives its due prominence in this domestic style. 


The Town Hall at Antwerp, 

erected in a.d. 1581 (No 143), is one of the most important 
buildings. The richness and prosperity of this particular city 
contributed not a little to the execution of this fine work. 
We may notice that an order, or row of columns, is given to 
each storey, that mullioned windows are adopted, that a 
high-pitched roof with dormer windows occurs, and the 
whole design is placed on a sturdy rusticated basement. 

The Stadthaus at Amsterdam 

is certainly not worthy of being mentioned except from its 
great size. 

Domestic Architecture. 

If we are disappointed in any large or important works 
erected during the Renaissance period in north-west 
Europe, we are amply repaid by studying much of the 




domestic and civic architecture, for while wandering through 
the streets of these old-world towns, we meet with charming 
specimens of street architecture, executed in bright red 
brick, with occasional stone courses and dressings, with the 
further ornament of gracefully-designed iron ties. In the 
design of their gables, much originality of treatment is found, 
leaning rather towards the work found in some of the old 
German towns, and often verging on the grotesque, but at 
the same time thoroughly suited to the brick material, and 
possessing a certain characteristic quaintness of their own. 

Many of these street fronts are good examples of the 
treatment of large window spaces. 

In Holland, especially, these quaint buildings, rising very 
often from the sides of the canals, group most harmoniously, 
and form fascinating studies for water-colour sketching, full, 
as they are, of life and colour. 


A. Plans. — The great development of domestic Gothic 
is the groundwork of the achievements of the Renaissance, 
in this country. It was in the modifications of detail that 
the influence of the latter was felt, Italian forms, generally 
much corrupted, being gradually adopted. 

B. Walls.— Gables of curly outline, grotesque, pic- 
turesque, and rococo in character, are crowded together in 
streets and squares, whose general effect and grouping must 
be enjoyed, without too much inquiry into their raiionaie or 

c. Openings. — Are numerous and crowded, in con- 
tinuation of the Gothic practice. The orders take the place 
of the niches, statuary, and traceried panelling, that surround 
the windows of the previous period (No. 143). 

D. Roofs. — The high-pitched forms continue long in 
favour, as well as the dormers and visible chimney stacks 
(No. 143). 

E. Columns. — The orders are used as decorative features, 
being heavily panelled, rusticated, and otherwise treated in 
a licentious and grotesque fashion. 


F. Mouldings. — The same defect, that of coarseness, 
noted under Gothic, continues in this period. The further 
divorce of detail from construction and material, rather 
accentuates the evil. 

G. Decoration. — Carving of vigorous grotesques occu- 
pies any vacant panel or space, the motifs being usually 
Italian, " corrupted " or " original," according to the point 
of view. The woodwork, and stained glass, of this age 
is especially worthy of note. 


Ernest George, " Etching in Belgium." 
" Documents classes de I'art dans les Pays-Bo.s," by Van 



i. Geographical. — The position and power of Spain, 
arising from the discovery of the new world, combined with 
the vast hereditary and conquered possessions of the 
Spanish monarchy, made her the leading nation in Europe. 

ii. Geological. — See arite (p. 192). The presence of 
very pure iron ore, in the northern mountains, facilitated the 
development of decorative ironwork. Granite is much used, 
and brick only in certain parts. 

iii. Climate. — See ante (p. 192). 

iv. Religion. — The Reformation obtained no hold what- 
ever in Spain. Under the Gothic period, we have pointed 
out the religious aspect of the great struggle with the Moors, 
and the national character of the church will be understood. 
The counter reformation found its motive force in the 
Jesuit order, founded by a Spaniard, Ignatius Loyola. 

V. Social and Political. — The people were a mixed 
population, in which the Goths of Northern Europe, and the 
Moors of North Africa, form the most important elements. 

From the latter part of the fifteenth century, the power of 
Spain gradually increased, until she became the chief power 
of Europe. 

Absolute despotism was the policy of Philip II., Jews 
and heretics being persistently persecuted. Under Philip III. 
the Moriscos w-ere driven out of the country, which proved 
a great loss to Southern Spain, which by their hard work 
had been made to flourish. 

vi. Historical. — The accession of Ferdinand and Isabella 
to the throne, and the fall of Granada in a.d. 1492, marks 
the consohdation of Spain, the expulsion of the Moors, and 
the beginning of the Spanish Renaissance. 


The great dominions of Spain were due to a succession 
of marriages, Charles V, reigning over Spain, the Nether- 
lands, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples, Germany, and Austria. 
This empire was held together by his skill in government, 
and by the excellence of the Spanish army, the infantry 
being the finest at that time in Europe. Philip II. checks 
the power of the Turks by winning the great naval battle 
of Lepanto, 157 1. His harsh and despotic rule, however, 
alienates the Netherlands, and the expedition against Eng- 
land ends in the defeat of the Armada in 1588. Provinces 
are gradually lost, and Spain as a power ceases to exist. 
Napoleon's invasion, at the commencement of this century, 
leads to an outburst of national resistance, aided by the Eng- 
lish. Many revolutions follow, but progress, as understood 
by other nations, has been slow. 


In the early period. Renaissance details, grafted on to 
Gothic forms, and influenced to some extent by the exuberant 
fancy of the Moorish work, produced a style as rich and 
poetic, however careless and incorrect, as any other of the 
numerous phases of the Renaissance in Europe. 

The style of the early period in Spanish Renaissance is 
called "Plateresco," and lasted to the abdication of Charles V. 
in 1556. The middle period became more classical, as was 
usual everywhere in Europe, and the chief expositor was the 
architect Herrara (d. 1597), a pupil of Michael Angelo. In 
the late period, the style fell away from true principles, 
becoming imbued with the Rococo innovations. 



Among the most important works, we may mention that 
the facade of San Gregorio at Valladolid (No. 144) well 
illustrates the peculiar richness of the Plateresco period, and 
the lace-work character of the detail, derived from Moorish 

144- San Gregorio, Valladolid. 

145- Burgos, Courtyard of the 

House of AIivanda. 
Shewing the Bracket Capital. 


influence. The University of Alcala has an open- 
arcaded storey under the roof, a feature specially charac- 
teristic of the early period. 

The Archbishop's Palace at Alcala is also note- 
worthy. Notice the "bracket" capitals, on the first floor in the 
courtyard, as undoubtedly of wooden origin, their use being 
to decrease the long bearing of the architrave. This is well 
shown in the courtyard of the Casa Miranda at Burgos (No. 

The Town Hall at Seville (No. 146) is generally 

regarded as the best e.xample of a municipal building in 

Spain. It has been considerably extended at later period.s, 

when much of the stonework remained uncarved. 

The Alcazar at Toledo, an ancient square castle of 
Moorish-Gothic architecture, has one facade in the early 
Renaissance of Charles V., while the interior has been con- 
verted into a two-storied Italian cortile. The arcades 
rest upon the capitals of the columns of two orders, of one 
storey each. At the far end is a grand staircase, 100 feet 
by 50 feet, the flights being of great width. Off the half 
landing is a grand square two-storied chapel. The whoie 
of this severe and monumental work is executed in granite. 
The back elevation is an early example of a many-storied 
building in the classical style. 

The Palace of Charles V., erected in 1527, adjoining 
the "Alhambra" at Granada, is an important specimen of 
the style. In plan it is a square, 205 feet each w-ay, inclosing 
an open circular court 100 feet in diameter. The external 
facade is two storeys in height : the lower, a rusticated base- 
ment ; the upper treated with Ionic columns. Both base- 
ment and ui)per order have bull's-eye windows above the 
lower openings, so that mezzanines couKi be lighted where- 
required. The circular internal elevation is an open colon- 
nade in two storeys, with Doric order on the lower, and 
Ionic order, of small height, to the first storey. 

It is built in a golden-coloured stone, the central feature 
of the two visible facades being in coloured marbles ; the 
sculpture is by Berruguete, and the whole design, which is of 
the Bramante school, is the purest example of Renaissance 
in Spain. The palace was never roofed in or occupied. 



The Palace of the Escurial (No. 147), situated thirty- 
two miles from Madrid, was commenced by Phih'p II., and in 
1567 Herrara was appointed architect. It is a group of build- 
ings on a site 640 feet long by 580 feet wide, and consists of a 
monastery, a college, a palace, and a church, all grouped into 
one design. The grand entrance, in the centre of the long 
facade, leads into an atrium, to the right of which is the 
college with its four courts, 60 feet square, surrounded with 
three storeys of arcades ; beyond is the great court of the 
college. On the left of the atrium is the monastery, with three 
courts 60 feet square, and beyond is the great court of the 
palace. Immediately in front, at the end of the atrium, is the 
church, lying between the courts of the palace and the 
college. Behind the church are the state apartments of the 

The church itself is 320 feet by 200 feet. 

The plan (No. 147) is Italian in origin, following some- 
what the type of the Carignano Church at Genoa. The 
detail is classical, and shows that Herrara studied to some 
purpose in Italy. 

The principal Spanish feature is the placing of the choir 
on a vault, over the lengthened western arm of the cross, 
beneath which is a domed vestibule — consequently the 
church interior is, in effect, a Greek cross on plan. 

In general grouping nothing could be finer than the dome 
as a centre, flanked by the two towers and surrounded by 
the great mass of building, the whole being silhouetted against 
a background of mountains. Moreover, the palace proper at 
the east end is only an annex, and does not conflict wi*^h 
the church, as the Vatican does with St. Peter's. 

The entire structure, internally and externally, is built in 
granite of a gray colour, with a slight yellow tinge, which 
material may have influenced the design. 

It may be said that the taste of Philip II. and Herrara 
would have produced something equally plain in any ma- 
terial, whether granite or not, but at least the design may 
be said to be suited to the material. 

The masonry is excellent, and in blocks of great size, the 
architraves of doors being 10 to 12 feet high, in one stone. 
The exterior fa(^ades are everywhere five storeys in height ; 

^^■ m ^ 




Town Hall, Seville. 



•i — liifi — ^JL 


h^. ^ r™* ""^t l^-" 

147. Tin; ESCURIAL, Sl'AIN. 


A. Atrium to Church. 

B. Great Court of the Palace. 

C. Great Court of College. 

D. Monastery. 

E. College. 

F. State Apartments of Palace. 



the windows square-headed, without dressings of any sort, 
and without any attempt at grouping, so that they are 
inferior in effect to the facade by Herrara, at the Alcazar, 
described above. 

As an interior, however, it is most impressive, being of 
granite with suitable detail, and only the vaults coloured. 
It has a magnificent reredos in such (^uietly-toned marbles 
that one hardly notices how rich it is. The architectural 
character is so restrained that the structure looks nothing 
at a mere cursory glance. 


In the seventeenth century the Spaniards, revolting from 
the correct and cold formalities of the school of Herrara, 
reached the opposite extreme, and erected buildings in 
which fantastic forms are employed for their own sake, 
without reference either to good taste or fitness. The style 
goes by a name as unpronounceable as the result is un- 
fortunate. It is called Churrigueresque, after the name of 
its chief practitioner. 


The dome at Burgos Cathedral (No. 113) belongs to 
the early period (1567) and is an example of the wealth of 
detail, so characteristic of the style. 

Granada Cathedral (a.d. i52i9), by Diego Siloe, is a 
grand example of the Renaissance churches of Southern 
Spain. It is a translation of Seville Cathedral into the 
Renaissance style, the Gothic system being followed, but 
the orders applied to the piers carrying the vaulting. The 
lofty circular choir is domed on radiating supports, ingeni- 
ously disposed, constituting a fresh and original departure. 
The general effect of the interior is powerful, but unduly 

Valladolid Cathedral, by Herrara, is more distinctively 
classic, but remains incomplete. The west facade is im- 
posing, but wholly out of scale, and in the interior the 
execution and detail are incredibly rude. 



The steeples which are placed alongside the cathedrals at 
Granada, Santiago, Malaga, and Carmona, are examples of 
a class of structure in which Spain is especially rich, and 
which are generally treated in a most pleasing manner. 


A. Plans. — In churches wide naves are usual, sometimes 
without any aisles. Lanterns or domes are common at the 
crossing, the transepts being usually shallow, as is also the 
apsidal chancel, the ritual choir remaining west of the 

In houses the Patio, or Spanish form of the Roman 
atrium, and the Italian cortile, is universal. It has even an 
added seclusion, which seems due to Moorish influence. 
The streets of Toledo present walls all but blank, through 
whose doorways, when open, but a glimpse of tho. patio only 
can be obtained. Staircases are often large, as in the Burgos 
transept, and the Casa Infanta at Saragossa, in which last the 
patio, and staircase opening irom it, are as picturesque and 
fanciful as any in Spain. Largeness of scale characterizes 
palaces as well as churches. 

B. Walls. — Brickwork is used in large, rough, but 
effective masses, as at Saragossa. Fine stonework is used 
m other places, and also granite, as at the Escurial anil 
Madrid. Gables are rarely or never found; a special 
feature is an eaves arcade, forming an open top storey, and 
on this feature all the decoration is concentrated, leaving 
blank walls below, relieved by an elaborate doorway. 
Arabesque pierced parapets or crestings, are common in 
the early work, as the Casa Monterey at Salamanca. At 
Saragossa, the great cornices of the brick palaces are of 
wood, elaborately detailed. 

c. Openings. — Doorways are emphasized. At Toledo 
they alone relieve the blank, narrow, walled streets. A 
special largeness of scale is to be noted, perhaps due to the 
importance of a gateway in the East. 

Windows are treated with well-designed grilles, and their 
dressings in stonework are frame-like in character. Small 



orders, resting on corbels, carry a head well ornamented, 
while the sill is often absent or untreated. 

D. Roofs. — Not emphasized. Generally flat or of low 
pitch. Towers, however, have spires of slate or leadwork 
of fancit'ul outline, even in designs of the severe classic 
period. The spire of St. Martin's, Ludgate, may be com- 
pared with the angle towers of the Escurial. Internally 
the great saloons of the early period are remarkable, the 
walls, for ten or more feet in height, being plain stonework, 
to be hung with draperies. A light-arcaded gallery of 
wood rests upon a great projecting wooden cornice, affording 
a passage in front of the windows in the main wall. This 
arcade reaches up to the flat wooden ceiling, framed in 
cofters, and detailed in a style that is suggestive of Arab 

E. Columns. — ^In the early style, the orders are used in 
slight and playful decorative forms (No. 146); the baluster 
shape, or shafts of an outline suggestive of the forms due to 
wood turned in a lathe, are used abundantly, being decorated 
in low relief. In the use of columns with arcades, sometimes 
very high pedestals are used, and the arches spring at the 
base line of the column. In the later work, correctness 
prevails until the outbreak of the Rococo. 

F. Mouldings. — In eaily work, much refinement is 
mingled with forms due to Gothic and Moorish influences. 
A special feature is the bracket capital (No. 145), by which the 
long bearings of stone architraves are relieved by corbels on 
either side, combined in treatment with the cap itself. 

In the middle period, the great number of breaks made in 
the entablatures mitred round columns, is to be noted (No. 
145). Especially in church interiors quite a special effect is 
produced, by the flutter of the many mitres. 

G. Decoration. — Sculpture varies much in quality (Nos. 
144, 145, and 146). Berruguete is the Donatello of the 
Spanish Renaissance, but his figures often are wanting 
in decorative treatment. Expression is emphasized unduly 
and violence of action is not uncommon. 

The painting on the sculpture is usually crude and realistic. 
The great retablos of alabaster, stone, or wood are the finest 
decorative feature of the churches. The figures are often 


life size, and the architectural detail is very elaborate. The 
iron Rejas, or grilles, are also a source of effect. 

Tile work is excellent in Southern Spain. Stained glass 
is apt to be loaded in colour and over vivid. The drawing 
is frequently clumsy, Flemish influence, not of the best 
kind, being apparent. The fresco work of the Escurial is 
merely late Italian. The canvases of Murillo at Madrid 
and at the church at Seville, though large in scale, have the 
character of paintings in oil. In the accessory arts, armour 
design was carried to great perfection by the Spaniards. 

We shall here bring our remarks to a close, merely men- 
tioning that the subject of the Renaissance in Spain has 
been well taken up by various travelling students of late 
years, and that the following books contain interesting 
examples : 


Prentice's "Renaissance in Spain.'' 

Verdier and Cattois, "Architecture civile et domes 

Sir Digby Wyatt, "An Architect's Note Book in Spain." 

David Roberts ) ,.• ^ c • 

Villa Amil J ^'^''^ ^f SP'^^"' 

Monumentos Espanos, by the Spanish Government. 



i. Geographical. — See p. 131. It would be hazardous 
to lay too much stress upon the relations, during the various 
phases of this period, of England with the Continental 
powers; but the relative cordiality of our relations with 
France, or Holland, might be seen by some to be reflected in 
the architectural fashion of successive periods. The closing 
of the Continent to travel during the great war at the end of 
the eighteenth, and beginning ot the nineteenth, century 
certainly coincided with the worst phase of our architecture. 

ii. Geological. — ^Refer back to English Gothic, p. 132. 
In the increase of population and cultivation of the land, 
forests were reduced, and wood has been gradually dis- 
used as an external building material, so that the timber 
architecture of the medieval period has died out. In London, 
the importation of Portland stone by Inigo Jones, a material 
very similar in weathering and t-ffect, to that used in the 
Renaissance palaces of Venice, si.ould be noted. The use 
of brick received a great impetus after the Fire of London, 
and was again brought into prominence on the introduction 
of the Dutch fashion. " Flemish" bond, as a technical term, 
has its significance. 

iii. Climate. — No change can be alleged here, but at 
least a great increase of warmth and comfort has been found 
necessary. The opening out of the great coal industry, by 
cheapening fuel, has led to each room having a fireplace, 
and incidentally, to other features that did not complicate 
the architecture of the earlier periods. 

iv. Religion. — In the early part of the sixteenth century, 
a stir in religious matters took place in Western Europe, 
partly on account of the abuses which had crept into the 

264 comi'arativp: architecture. 

Church, which the Popes failed to rectify, and also because 
the authority of the Pope was increasingly felt to be irksome. 

The suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) caused 
the diffusion of vast sums of money and land, which Henry 
VIII. distributed at will among his courtiers. 

Monasteries either fell into ruin, or else were converted 
into the mansions of the new men. Others were cleared 
away for the erection of houses according to the new taste, 
the funds for which enterprises proceeded from the newly 
seized revenues. 

The Act of Supremacy, 1559, settles the relation of the 
English Church to the power of the Crown. 

V. Social and Political. — The historical and other 
events which occurred previous to, and paved the way for, 
the introduction of the Renaissance into England, are many 
and significant. Some of these have been dealt with under 
Renaissance (page 200). Of others, we may note : 

The end of the Wars of the Roses, which had lasted from 
1455 to 1485, during which period architecture was practi- 
cally at a standstill. Secondly, the terrible destruction to life 
caused by these wars, for no less than twelve pitched battles 
were fought, eighty princes of the blood were slain, and the 
almost entire annihilation of the ancient nobility of England 
took place. The new men who succeedetl, were naturally 
more susceptible to any new intellectual movement, they 
desired, moreover, new and important country houses, being 
in every way anxious to provide themselves with the para- 
phernalia suited to their rank. 

The invention of gunpowder rendered obsolete the ancient 
castles, and newer fortresses tended to become merely mili- 
tary posts, no longer habitable as palaces by a king, or as 
seats by the nobility. 

The introduction of printing by Caxton (1474) powerfully 
aided the new movement, by the enlargement of men's 
ideas, and by the increased spread of knowledge throughout 
the country. 

The death of James IV. of Scotland, at Flodden, 1513. 
His alliance with France indicates French influence in 

The court of Henry VIII. was composed of men who 


were connected with tlie new movement, and here, amongst 
artists, we find Holbein, from Basle ; and Torri<i;iano, from 
Italv : the latter brought over in 1512 to execute Henry 
Vn.'s tomb in Westminster Abbey. The celebrated John 
of Padua was also brought over by Henry VHI. 

Henry VHI. and Edward VI. employ part of the funds 
obtained from the suppression of the monasteries (i 536-1 540) 
to the erection and endowment of grammar schools and 
colleges, which play an important part in the development. 

The reign of Elizabeth ('1558-1603) inaugurates the 
era of the erection of the great domestic mansions. In 
hterature we have the writings and influence of Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Burleigh, and Sir Philip Sidney. 

Finally, the wars against the Huguenots in France, 
and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572, led to the 
emigration of these skilled craftsmen to England, which in- 
fluenced, not a little, the efiicient execution of the newly- 
imjiorted classical architecture. 

vi. Historical. — Henrv VHI. had undisputed posses- 
sion of the English crown. He mixes generally with foreign 
affairs ; the meeting with the French king at the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold, 1520, is an event of some significance, 
and bears an important relation to the introduction of 
Renaissance details into England. Henry declares the 
Pope to have no jurisdiction in England. Edward VI. 
continues the Reformation, but Mary's policy was reactionary, 
and marks the era of Spanish influence in England. Under 
Elizabeth (i 558-1603), the Reformation was finally settled, 
and the defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588, marks the 
decline of Spanish power in Europe. Charles I.'s attempts 
to develop art are cut short by the outbreak of Puritanism. 
Under Charles II. French influence was potent, and with 
Louis XIV. France reaches its greatest glory. The rise of 
Holland was taking place, and on the expulsion of James II. 
bv William of Orange, Dutch influence made itself felt. 
With the accession of George I. (the Hanoverian dynasty) 
commences an era of quiet domestic progress. The growth 
of London proceeds rapidlv. Art slowly deteriorates, until 
the Exhibition of 185 1 marks the commencement of a 



Elizabethan Architecture is a transition style, and 
immediately follows the Tudor or late Gothic, which carries 
us to the reign of Henry VIII. (see page 162). It bears 
the same relation to Anglo-Classic, or fully-developed 
English Renaissance, as the Fj-aticis I. period does to 
fully-developed French Renaissance. 

The period of the Elizabethan style resembles that of the 
Early French and German Renaissance, in that church build- 
ing is practically at a standstill, practically no church being 
erected in the Elizabethan style at all, sufficient churches 
being left from the Middle Ages for the wants of the people. 
Elizabethan architecture thus differs from the Italian Re- 
naissance, in which church building took the principal 

Elizabethan resembles French Renaissance, in that the 
principal examples were erected in the country by powerful 
statesmen and successful merchants, and differs from Italian 
Renaissance, in which the principal examples were erected 
in cities. 

The Elizabethan style may be said to be an attempt, on 
the part of the English, to translate Italian ideas into their 
own vernacular; it does not confine itself to architecture 
only, but pervades the whole fitting of buildings, in furniture 
and decoration. Elizabethan art forms in this respect a style 
complete in every aspect. 



The principal features are : 

i. The great hall, a feature handed on from Gothic 
times (No. 149), lined to a height of 8 or 10 feet with 

' English Renaissance is divided into the following periods : Eliza- 
bethan, p. 266; Jacobean, p. 269; Anglo-Classic, p. 273; Eighteenth 
Century, p. 278; Nineteenth Century (to 1S51), \\. 284; Nineteenth 
Century (1851 to the present day), p. 289. 



oak panelling, while above are arranged the trophies of the 
chase, the armour and portraits of ancestors, and family 
relics and heirlooms. 

At one end of the hall, by the entrance, is the carved oak 
screen, over which is placed the minstrels' gallery, while at 
the other end is the raised dais with a tall bay-window, the 
sill reaching nearly down to the ground. The hall fireplace 
is much elaborated, and richly 
carved with the coat-of-arms 
of the owner, and the timber 
roof, of hammer-beam con- 
struction, is often elaborately 

ii. The broad staircase 
of oak is a special feature, 
with its heavily-carved newels, 
pierced balustrading, and rich 
carving. It is generally placed 
in connection with the hall, 
and lends to the interior an air 
of spaciousness and dignity. 

iii. The great gallery on 
the tirst floor, extending the 
whole length of the house. 
The proportions of this apart- 
ment vary considerably from 
the hall, in being comparatively 
low and narrow in proportion 
to the length. The length is 
relieved by room-like project- 
ing bays — those at Haddon 
Hall being as large as an ordinary room (15 feet by 12 feet), 
with stone-mullioned windows, glazed with leaded panes. The 
walls are panelled in oak the full height, and the ceiling is 
richly modelled in plaster. There is no feature of an old 
English mansion more characteristic than these galleries. 

The term "picture gallery" is supposed to be derived from 
these apartments. 

The gallery at Aston Hall is 136 feet long by 18 feet 
wide and 16 feet high. 

I Mall i« gREEia 
jDnAwirvc Roon 
A Large £)i-"unc rev 
4 §rtALL D' f^Ji^^ R*^ 
• Pa-ttry 
y Kn"C.HEn 


c Order Hoy^E 





iv. Other rooms, besides the above, are the withdrawing 
room, or solar of Gothic times, very often a chapel, and 
the bedrooms, which increased considerably in number and 
importance, after the close of the Gothic epoch. 





Knole (Kent). 


Penshurst (Kent). 


Burleigh (Lines.). 


John Thorpe. 

Longleat (Wilts.). 


John of Padua. 

Westwood (Worcest.). 


Wollaton (Notts.). 


John Thorpe and 
R. Smithson. 

Moreton Hall (Cheshire) (No. 150), 1550-1559, is an 
example of many of the timbered houses, erected in the 
period, for which Lancashire is specially famous. 


Many of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were 
erected during this period, and these buildings, being situated 
within the seats of revived learning, naturally gave a great 
impetus to the new style, as object lessons to the rising 





The Gate of Honour, 


Theodore Havenius 

Caius College. 

of Cleves. 

The Quadrangle, 


Clare College. 

Neville's Court, 


Trinity College. 

151. The Tower of the Old Schools, Oxford. 



Gateway of the Schools. 1612 (No. 151). I'hoinas Holt. 
(Note the superimposed 

Quad, of Merton Coll. 
Quad, of Wadham Coll. 

and others. 


Many interesting specimens have come down to us, and 
among them are several houses of half-timber construction, 
as, for example, in London, Staple Inn, Holborn, Sir Paul 
Pindar's House in Bishopsgate (now in the South Kensington 
Museum), and many other examples in Chester, and other of 
the country towns throughout England. 


taken with Jacobean, p. 270. 

THE JACOBEAN STYLE (1603-1625 . 


are taken with Elizabethan, page 263. 


I )uring the reign of James I. the Renaissance style, although 
a continuation of the Elizabethan in many respects, was 
further developed, losing more and more of Gothic tendency 
and picturesqueness, as classic literature and models became 
l)etter known, and the use of the classic columns with their 
entablatures was more and more general. The celebrated 
architect, John Thorpe, erected several of the mansions of 
this epoch, and his book of "compositions," preserved in 
Sir John Soanc's Museum, should be studied by the student. 



In examining the buildings of this style, we shall be struck 
with their suitability to the wants of the people, in whose era 
they were erected. Some of the detail and ornamentation 
may be considered questionable, but they were at least the 
outcome of the social conditions of the age in which they 
occur, and we can only say that an examination of the 
mansions, erected during the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
periods, most of which are easily accessible to the student, 
will bring as much if not more pleasure than the study of 
the buildings of any other period of Architecture in England. 
Jacobean furniture design continues on the same lines as 
the architecture. 


List of some Famous Jacobean Mansions. 

Name. Date. Archiiect. 

Holland House, Kensington. 1607. John Thorpe. 

Bramshill, Hants. 1607-1612. 

Hatfield House, Herts (No. 161 1. 

Longford Castle, Wilts. 16 12. John Thorpe. 

Audley End, Essex. 1616. Bernard Jansen. 

Kirby Hall, North Hants John Thorpe. 

(No. 153). 
Losely Park, near Guildford. 


a. Plans are often E or H-shaped on plan, the entrance 
being in the middle of the letter, and the two ends form- 
ing wings, as at Bramshill, Hardwick, Longford, Hatfield, 
Longleat, Burleigh, Loseley, and Audley End, while many 
are irregular in plan, as Knole, Penshurst, and Haddon (ball- 
room wing), such grouping being often brought about through 
the work being an addition to a previous Gothic house. 

Broad terraces raised above the garden level, and leading 
thereto with wide fliglits of steps and balustrades, are a 








charming feature in the style. These are often laid out in 
a formal manner, with yews and other trees cut in fantastic 

B. Walls. — Elevations have the character of picturesque- 
ness, and the classic orders are used in a free and easy 
manner, often ])laced one above the other in the fac^ades, 
as at Hatfield House (No. 152), the Gateway of the Schools 
at Oxford (Xo. 151), and Kirby Hall (No. 153). 

The gabies are often of scroll-work, following in a general 
way the slope of the roof (No. 153). 

The chimney stacks (No. 153) are a special and prominent 
feature, they are often treated in a classical manner, with 
orders, but generally are of cut brickwork, the shafts being 
carried up boldly, so that they play an important part in the 
composition and outline of the house. 

Parapets are pierced with various designs with charac- 
teristic detail (No. 152). 

c. Openings. — ^Bay windows are largely used, as at 
Longleat, and Kirby Hall (No. 153), and form an im- 
portant element of the style. 

Large heavily-muUioned windows (No. 153), filled in with 
leaded glass, and crossed by horizontal transoms, are a special 
feature adapted from the late Gothic period. 

Arcades are often introduced, as at Hatfield (No. 152). 

Dormers are largely used, and turrets (No. 152) are in 
common use. 

I). Roofs. — The use of high roofs, and also of flat or low 
roofs with balustrades, occurs both separately and in the 
same design. Lead and tiles are both used, and also stone 
slates in certain districts. The balustrade, arcaded, pierced, 
or battlemented, is a constant feature (No. 152). 

E. Columns. — The orders are employed rarely with 
purity ; at Longleat, the most Italian-like example, the top- 
most are the smallest, corresponding to the local use of the 
best rooms on the ground floor. Bramshill has a centre 
which is perhaps the most licentious specimen of the style. 
A characteristic treatment is the reduction downwards, 
more especially in pilasters, accompanied by bulbous swell- 
ings. Square columns are used, banded with strap orna- 
mentation ; pilasters are similarly treated or panelled. 


Arcades are much employed, especially in the form of 
recessed loggie. Ex. : Bramshill and Hatfield (No. 152). 

F. Mouldings. — Local and coarse in many instances. 
Two characteristics are the corona of a cornice, as a huge 
cyma above a small ogee ; and the use of convex cornices, 
otten banded or carved at intervals. Plaster work seems to 
have influenced in many ways the sections employed. 

G. Decoration. — Strap ornamentation is formed by 
bands of raised plaster, of about the width and thickness of 
a leather strap, mterlaced in grotesque patterns, as in the 
ceilings of the period. It is considered by some as derived 
trom the East, through France and Italy, in imitation of 
the damascened work which was at that period so common. 
This type of detail is also found in pilasters, as at Hatfield 
(No. 152). 

Grotesquely carved figures as terminals occur, and are a 
remnant from Gothic times (Nos. 152 and 153). 

Prismatic rustication, or the projection of blocks of stone 
of prismatic form (No. 153), occurs in pilasters and pedestals, 
and in later times coloured stones are inserted in their 

Plaster work is used with great skill in design, and 
adaptability to the material for ceilings. Broad friezes in the 
same material are sometimes modelled with much quaint- 
ness and grotesque feeling, as at Hardwick. Tapestries 
continued to be used for walls. Colour decoration made 
little or no progress. 


John Thorpe's original drawings in the Soane Museum. 
"C. J. Richardson's "Old English Mansions." 
Gotch and Talbot Brown's "Architecture of the Renais- 
sance in England." 
Shaw's "Elizabethan Architecture." 
Nash's " Mansions of the Olden Time." 
" Kenilworth," by Sir W. Scott. (Historical Novel.) 
John Inglesant," by Shorthouse. (Historical Novel.) 



(the seventeenth century, or ANGLO-CLASSIC.) 

Inigo Jones (1572-1652). 

Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). 

I. INFLUENCES (see page 263). 


Elizabethan and Jacobean, which are transitional styles, 
between late Gothic and the purer classicism of the period 
we are about to discuss, at length gave way before the 
influence of Inigo Jones and Wren. These architects are 
to be considered as the founders of the Anglo-Classic, or 
fully-developed Renaissance, in England. 


INIGO JONES (1572-1652). 

His work was influenced by long study in Italy, at Venice, 
and especially at Vicenza, Palladio's native town. He was in- 
vited to Copenhagen by the King of Denmark, but returned to 
England in the train of the wife of James I. He revisited 
Italy, in 16 12, for further study, and on his return introduced 
a purer Renaissance style, founded on Italian models and 
ornamentation. Palladio was Inigo Jones's master in design, 
and has since always had a great influence on English 

The Commonwealth intervened, and checked the execu- 
tion of many of Inigo Jones's designs. 

His principal Buildings and designs are : 

The Quadrangle ot St. John's College, Oxford, in 

the early transition style. 
Chilham Castle, Kent, also transitional; E-shaped 
fagade, with radiating side wings, forming a horse- 
shoe court at the back. Materials : — Brick and stone 


The Banqueting House, W^hitehall (a.d. 1619- 
1621), which is a part only of a Royal Palace, one 
of the grandest architectural conceptions of the 
Renaissance. The greater part of the building was 
to be three storeys in height, each storey 30 feet, 
and the height to the top of parapet was to be 100 
feet. The remainder, being curtain wings to the 
main blocks, in design like the Banqueting House, 
was to be 75 feet high, divided into two storeys. 
The plan was arranged round courtyards, one of 
which was to be circular (compare Spain, p. 257). 
The great court would have vied with that of the 
Louvre. In this design, proportion, elegance, and 
purity of detail, are more happily combined than in 
any other Renaissance scheme of the kind. 

St. Paul's, Covent Garden, was erected in a.d. 
1 63 1, and the main characteristics are that it is severe 
and imposing, by reason of its simplicity and good 

The Duke of Devonshire's villa at Chiswick was 
founded on Palladio's villa at Vicenza (see p. 226). 
It is important because it marks the earliest intro- 
duction of the '" pillar and portico " style, which 
in the next century leads to the neglect of those 
fundamental principles of architecture, namely, suit- 
ability of purpose, utility, and appropriateness. 

The river fa(;ade of Greenwich Hospital, in which 
the two lower storeys are included under one huge 
Corinthian order, and 

Wilton House, Wiltshire, Houses in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, Great Queen Street, and Ashburnham House, 
Dean's Yard (notable staircase), are other examples 
of his works. 


was a scholar and a mathematician. His brilliant success 
at Cambridge as a scientist, and as an astronomical pro- 
fessor at Oxford, prepared him for many important con- 
structive feats, in after life. Wren's great opportunity was 


4 i' 




Section through Dome.' 


the destruction of London by the Great Fire in 1666, after 
which he devised a grand plan for the reconstruction, which 
was, however, abandoned for pecuniary and other reasons. 
As an architect, he lacked the more thorough technical 
education of Inigo Jones, and was not always able to clothe 
his constructive forms in equally appropriate detail. 

Wren's study of French work at Paris, and elsewhere in 
France was, however, an important part of his education as 
an architect. The works on the Louvre were then in 
progress, and constituted a great school of art; in conse- 
quence, his work shows more French influence than that of 
Inigo Jones, which is pure Italian. 

Palladio continued to be the inspirer of Fnglish work, as 
compared with Vignola, whom the French followed, but 
Wren gave often a semi-French turn to his designs, more 
especially in- the decorative detail, as the attentive student 
will discover, on comparing his work with that of Inigo Jones. 

His work is of course all tinged with classical colouring, 
the classical column and details are always paramount. In 
many of his designs, in which he was obliged to study cheap- 
ness, he made up for it, as has been said, by spending thought, 
and all his designs, as Opie said, are mixed " with brains." 
A careful study of proportion of part to part is exhibited in 
his works. 

Many of these, as St. Paul's and the City churches, are 
executed in a material, Portland stone, which by its good 
weathering properties adds to the dignity and importance 
of monumental work; while in domestic work, he used red 
brick, with stone dressings, as at Hampton Court, Marl- 
borough House, etc. 

The principal works of Sir Christopher Wren are : 

i. The Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, 1664. 

The constructive carpentry in the roof is an evidence of 
his scientific skill, as is also the splendid acoustic 
properties of the hall. 

ii. St. Paul's, London, 1675-1710. 

The first design ])repared by Sir Christopher Wren was 
in plan a Greek cross ; as can be seen by the model in 
the north triforium at St. Paul's Cathedral. He was, 
however, compelled by the influence of the clergy to 


adopt the Latin cross, and medicXval type of plan 
(No. 124), which he clothed with the forms of classic 

By the comparative set of plans (No. 124) given, it can 
be compared with St. Peter's, the Pantheon, Paris, 
and Cologne Cathedral. 

St. Paul's is essentially an English type of plan, it is 
long, and has the dome in the middle of its length. 

The section (No. 154) clearly shows the triple con- 
struction of the doine, which is carried on eight 
piers. It is, externally, perhaps the most beautiful 
dome in existence. Notice particularly the un- 
broken exterior colonnade, and the blocking up of 
every fourth intercolumniation (No. 155), which pro- 
duces an effect of strength and solidity. The supports 
of the dome are seen externally carried down to the 
ground, which is resthetically satisfactory. 

The fagade is two orders in height (No. 155), the 
lower being Corinthian, and the upper Composite. 
The upper storey of the fagade is, in reality, only a 
screen wall (No. 156), with nothing behind it, because 
the aisles are only one storey high ; it is added 
simply to give dignity and expression to the composi- 
tion. It is interesting to compare the construction 
with that of St. Peter's, Rome. 

The poetess Joanna Baillie has well described the 
majestic appearance of St. Paul's, on a foggy day : 

" Rear'd in the sky, 
'Tis then St.. Paul's arrests the wandering eye ; 
The lower parts in swathing mists conceard, 
The higher through some half-spent shower reveal'd. 
So far from earth removed, that well I trow, 
Did not its form man's artful structure show, 
It might some lofty Alpine peak be deem'd, 
The eagle's haunt, with cave and crevice seam'd. 
Stretch'd wide on either hand, a rugged screen, 
In lurid dimness nearer streets are seen, 
Like shoreward billows of a troubled sea 
Arrested in their rage." 

Time Building. 


Master Mason. 


St. Paul's. 

35 years. 




St. PeterV. 

100 years. 





thus referred to by Pope in one of his epistles to the Earl of 

" You show us, KcMiic was glorious, not profuse, 
And pompous buildings once were things of use. 
Yet shall, my lord, your just, your noble rules, 
Eill half the land with imitating fools ; 
\Yho random drawings from your sheets shall take, 
And of one beauty many blunders make ; 
Load some vain church with old theatric state, 
Turn arcs of triumph to a garden gate ; 

Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar, 
Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door." 

This passage suggests what really did happen, and charac- 
terizes the style of architecture so truly, that it is well worth 

Note. — At the end of the century are found architects 

dividing into the two opposite camps of Classic and 

Gothic styles, which were henceforth to battle for the 

pre-eminence. In this section we shall enumerate the 

more important architects, and, as they were practising 

concurrently, it has been thought better to put their 

works into two columns. 

In this century we shall notice that the design of the 

buildings, not excepting the domestic class, is influenced by 

a passion for symmetry and grandeur at all costs, which 

almost entirely puts aside, as unworthy of consideration, the 

comfort and convenience of the people who had to occupy 

these buildings. 

We might in this respect agree with Pope that 

" 'tis very fine. 
But where d'ye sleep, or where d'ye dine ? 
I find by all you have been telling 
That 'tis a house, but not a dwelling." 

Or we may quote Lord Chesterfield, who said that General 
Wade had better take a lodging opposite his Palladian 
mansion (by Lord Burlington), if he liked nothing of it but 
the front. 

We must not, however, overlook the fact that, at this time, 
there grew up a vernacular style, most of the less important 
houses being erected in the useful and modest Queen Anne 



and Georgian type of square house. Moreover, corridor 

planning and the now fast developing trade of the joiner, 

did much to further convenience and comfort in domestic 


Hawks)noor (1666-1736) was 
a pupil of Wren and followed 
him in his practice. Principal 
works : St. George's, Blooms- 
bury ; Church of St. Mary 
Woolnoth, in Lombard Street, 
London ; St. George's in the 
East, London. 

In Hawksmoor's work, ideas, 
of some originality and gran- 
deur, are too often marred by 
eccentricities of treatment. 

Badly-designed detail is a 
weak point with the pupils of 

James Gibbs ( 1 683- 1 7 54). 
Principal works were : St. 
Martin's in the Fields ; St. 
Mary-le-Strand (notice that the 
tower of this church, on plan, is 
an oblong, not a square) ; the 
Radclifife Library, Oxford ; the 
Senate House, Cambridge ; 
Bartholomew's Hospital, Lon- 
don. He published a book of 
his own designs, in which the 
above works, with others, may 
be found. 

Sir John Vanbriigh (1666- 
1726). Principal works : 
Blenheim Palace (No. 148), 
the most important mansion of 
the period erected in England, 
is both picturesque and stately. 
It is the commencement of the 
Palladian type of house, in 
which a striving after sym- 
metry and monumental gran- 
deur, at the expense of useful- 
ness, led to the debasement of 
architecture. In the plan of 
Blenheim, we should observe 
the extensive use of corridors 
as communicating passages, 
which is a great development 
in planning, and a step towards 
the privacy which is now in- 
sisted upon. Castle Howard, 
Yorkshire, is another example 
of a ponderous yet magnificent 

1 hoinas Arc/u'r{(\. 1743) was 
a pupil of Sir John V^anbrugh. 
He erected St. John's, West- 
minster, in the Rococo style, 
and St. Philip's, Birmingham, 
in the somewhat heavy style 
of his master. 

Colin Campbell (d.1734) was 
the compiler of the " Vitruvius 
Britannicus," which contains 
plans and elevations of all the 
country houses of any impor- 
tance erected during the cen- 
tury, and which should be con- 
sulted by the student. 









Kent 11684-1748), in colla- 
boration with the Earl of Biir- 
lins^ton, erected the Horse 
(Guards, London, in which note 
the skilful j^^j-Quping of the 
parts ; the Treasury Build- 
ings, Horse Guards Parade; 
Devonshire House, Piccadilly: 
Holkham Hall, \orfoIk. 

T The Brotheys Adam. 
^^ Robert Adam (^1728-1792) 
puBttshed '' Diocletian's Palace 
at Spalatro,"' in the year 1760, 
a book which influenced archi- 
tectural design. He erected 
two sides of Fitzroy Square ; 
the .Adelphi Terrace (named 
after the four brothers) ; the 
screen infront of the Admiralty, 
Whitehall; Caen Wood, Hamp- 
stead ; Keddlestone Hall, 
Derbyshire ; and the College 
at Edinburgh. 

The brothers Adam were 
the authors of a sutHciently 
marked style of interior deco- 
ration that is known by their 
name. Furniture and decora- 
tion were treated together with 
the de&ign of the rooms them- 

Henyy Holland ^1740-1806; 
erected Claremont House, 
Esher; Carlton House (since 
destroyed, the Corinthian co- 
lumns being employed at the 

Sir Robert Taylor 1714- 
1788) erected the Pelican Fire 
Office, Lombard Street; Ely 
House, Dover Street. 

Geora^e Dance, senior (died 
1 768), City architect of London, 
erected the Mansion House, 

His better known son was 
the designer of Newgate, the 
most appropriate of prison de- 
signs, also of St. Luke's Hos- 

/oJin Wood (1704- 1 754) of 
Bath, in conjunction with 
Dawkins, published the " Illus- 
trations of Baalbec and Pal- 
myra" in 1750, creating a taste 
for Roman magnificence. 
His best known work is Prior 
Park, Bath. 

Sir William Chambers(\']i(i- 
1796), first Treasurer of the 
Royal Academy, wrote the 
" Treatise on the Decorative 
Part of Civil .Architecture." 
He carried on the traditions of 
the Anglo-Palladian school, 
objecting strongly to the Greek 
revival then commencing. He 
travelled largely in Europe and 
the East. His great work is 
Somerset House (No. 157), 
which is grand, dignified, and 
simple in its parts. .\ single 
order runs through two storeys, 
and rustication is largely em- 
ployed. The character of his 
work in general is correct and 
refined, but lacking somewhat 
in originality and strength. 

James Gatidon (1742- 1823), 
a pupil of Sir W. Chambers, 
erected the Custom House 
and the Law Courts at Dubhn. 

Sirjohfi Soaiie (1750- 1837), 



National Gallery) ; Brooks's 
Club, London ; the vestibule to 
Dover House, Whitehall, which 
is a charming and refined 
piece of work. 

James IVyatt (1748-18 13) 
studied in Rome. His works 
in London are : the Pantheon 
(1772) in Oxford Street, and 
White's Club ; Lee Priory, 
Kent; Castle Coote, Ireland; 
Bowden Park, Wiltshire ; and 
Fonthill Abbey. He undertook 
the restoration of many of the 
cathedrals in England and 
Wales, and the small know- 
ledge of the true spirit of Gothic 
architecture then existing is 
responsible for his inability to 
effect these with any degree of 
success. Pugin has starred 
him with the affix " the de- 

a pupil of the architect of New- 
gate, on his return from Italy 
was, in 1788, appointed archi- 
tect to the Bank of England. 
This important building occu- 
pied many years of his life, 
and constitutes his masterpiece. 
Comparing this design with 
Newgate,it fails in thequalityof 
apparent suitability of purpose. 
His designs are those of an 
original mind, but he was un- 
able to clothe them with suit- 
able details. There is a con- 
sequent taint of eccentricity. 
The Dulwich picture gallery 
is by him. The student 
should visit Sir John .Soane's 
Museum, in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, which was formerly hi ^ 
private house. 


A. Plans. — Are marked by regularity and symmetry in 
many instances, showing signs of being dictated by a pre- 
conceived elevation. The Italian use of a piano nobile 
above a storage basement, ruinously affected many country 
houses. Excessive cellarage, or bad offices, occupy the 
ground floor, and the best rooms are reached by a great 
external staircase and portico, or by a mean approach from 
a side door through the basement. Note the use of 
octagonal, circular, and elliptical-shaped apartments, often 
cubical in proportion. Suites are arranged of such saloons 
in various combinations. Staircases receive much attention, 
ingenious domical, or other top lights, being introduced. 
Corridors gradually supersede the hall and eJi suite .systems 
of planning. 


B. ^Valls. — Are usually thick, and filled in solid be- 
tween the varied shapes of the rooms, on plan. Brick is 
used most commonly for the \vallinl,^ and often for the 
facing, but in later work it is usually stuccoed. Stone is 
used as an ashlar facing and for dressings. Unbroken 
surfaces set off the porticoes,, pilasters, or window dressings 
of the composition. Blank walls, to mask undesirable ne- 
cessities, are not uncommon. Chimneys are often concealed. 
Pediments are the only form of gable, and are used with 
and without balustrades. 

c. Openings. — Windows are reduced as much as pos- 
sible, but infrequency of openings is compensated for by 
large and unobstructed window areas. Porticoes and arcades 
are regulated by the proportions of the classical orders, and 
the minimum condition of having to pass through them ; 
the maximum scale was a question of material and expense. 
Vertical grouping of windows is effectively developed (Ex. : 
houses in Hanover Square). Large compositions of the 
windows of more than one room or storey are not affected 
by party or floor divisions. Ex. : Adams' works in Fitzroy 
Square, etc. 

D. Roofs. — "No roof but a spherical one being suffi- 
ciently dignified," for this style, balustrades or attics conceal 
whatever is left of the lowest pitch of slates or tiles possible. 
In the smaller works tiles, and a wooden eaves cornice, are 
often effectively used. Domes, cupolas, and turrets are 
well designed. Those on a large scale are lead covered, 
small examples are sometimes entirely of wood. The 
splendid steeples of the period, in stone and leaded wood, 
rival mediaeval spires in fanciful and skilful outlines. 

E. Columns. — The orders are used everywhere that 
funds permitted. The small size of stone obtainable in 
England prevented single order porticoes on a large scale, 
until stucco and iron came in. Pilasters, however, are most 
often of two or more storeys in height. In interiors, columns, 
often purely decorative in function, are employed with con- 
siderable effect. 

F. Mouldings. — ^The standard mouldings of the classic 
orders become the stock in trade of every workman, being 
applied in every material with small modification. 


Work is thus often found of equal standard in very varied 
classes of building. The great use of wood, even in main 
external cornices, gives, by its possible smallness of scale and 
ease of working, some elaboration and refinement, to very 
simple buildings. 

G. Decoration. — Fresco artists are sometimes employed, 
as in the case of Verrio and Sir James Thornhill, but white- 
wash is usual. Besides the orders, executed with facility in 
wood or composition, or both combined, decoration, founded 
on Roman, or in the later period, on Greek examples, is 
modelled in stucco with great skill and effect. French work 
of the style of Louis XIV. and his successors, was also fol- 
lowed, while the P)rothers Adam and others imported Italian 
workmen, who carried the art to a high pitch of technical 


The "Vitruvius Britannicus," published in successive 
editions, contains the designs of the more important build- 
ings erected during the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 

" Palladio," by Isaac Ware. 

Chambers, " Civil i\.rchitecture." 

Adams, "Spalatro and Works of the Brothers Adam." 

Gibbs, " Books of Designs." 

Burlington, " Designs of Inigo Jones." 

" Esmond," by Thackeray. ) tt- . • 1 xt i 

4i'i-u Tr- ■ ■ )! 1 ^M 1 > Historical Novels. 

' Ihe Virgmians, by Ihackeray. j 


(1800 TO 1851.) 

(the age of revivals running concurrently.) 


The notes on this period are only to be taken as, in some 
slight degree, explanatory of the general course which archi- 


lecture has taken during this century. The beginning of 
this century saw Falladianism on the decHne, and eclectic- 
ism was henceforth to be the governing feature of our 
architecture. Our isolation from the Continent, due to the 
Napoleonic wars, practically shut off all new ideas in art. 
On the other hand, the works by Stuart and Revett, and 
Adams, etc., published in the last century, were producing 
that movement in architecture which we know by the name 
of the Greek revival. Somewhat later we feel the full force 
of the romantic Gothic revival, started in the latter part of 
the last century by Horace Waipole at Twickenham, in the 
erection of Strawberry Hill, a pseudo-gothic abbey in lath 
and plaster. 


Note. — The Classic and Gothic schools of architecture, 
which now, for the first time, run concurrently, are placed 
side by side. 

*^* The mention of architects still living has been 
decided upon, not without a certain amount of hesita- 
tion, but the authors will be glad to receive any cor- 


In this section we must The influence of literature, 

notice the influence of classical such as Battey Langley's 

writings on architecture, such " Gothic Architecture Ini- 

asStuartand Revett's^.Athens" proved," etc.; John Britton's 

(.\.D. 1762), Robert Adanvs "Architectural Antiquities " 

" Spalatro," Inwood's " Erech- (1807-1826); Rickman's "At- 

theion," and the publications of tempt to Discriminate the 

the Dilettante Society, etc. Gothic Styles" in 1819; and 

The Elgin marbles were the writings of the elder l^ugin, 

brought to England in 1801- from 1821 and onwards, help 

1803 by Lord Elgin, and con- on the Gothic movement, 

siderably influenced the public .Strawberr)- Hill, completed 

taste in favour of classic work. in 1770, an absurd lath and 

(For the work of this genera- plaster abbey, by its notoriety 

tion, see Shepherd's '" London,'" is important, 

with text by the elder Elmes.) Fonthill Abbey, by James 

Wyatt, completed in 1822. also 




New Church of St. Pancras in 
1819, an attempt to copy ab- 
solutely the purest of Greek 

Nas/t (i752-i835)of the Re- 
gency, introduces the age of 
stucco : Haymarket Theatre ; 
Buckingham Palace ; Regent 
Street, with Quadrant (for 
colonnades, since taken down, 
see old prints). The laying out 
of Regent's Park in palatial 
blocks of theatrical archi- 

WilUavi Wilkins (1778- 
1839): University College, 
London ; the National Gal- 
lery (fettered with conditions) ; 
.St. George's Hospital, London ; 
Museum at York ; Downing 
College, Cambs. ; The Grange 
House, Hants (1820). 

Sir Robert Smirke (1780- 
1867), a pupil of Sir John 
.Soane : The British Museum 
(1823- 1 847), (in which remark 
the application of the useless 
but grandeur-giving porticoes 
to public buildings); General 
Post Office ; King's College, 
London (1831) ; Carlton Club, 
after the library of St. Mark's, 

George Basevi (1795-1845), 

represents the idea of repro- 
ducing the monastic buildings 
of the mediaeval period, the 
internal arrangements being 
those of everyday houses. 

St. Luke's, Chelsea ( 1 820), an 
early attempt at revived Gothic, 
the barn-like and galleried 
church of the period, being 
clothed with details, directly 
copied from old cathedrals and 
churches, may be compared 
with .St. Pancras Church (1819), 
a copy in many respects of the 
Erechtheion at Athens. 

Sir Jeffrey Wyatville (1766- 
1840) transforms Windsor 
Castle in 1826. This started 
a fashion for castellated man- 
sions, internally of the vernacu- 
lar architecture, and externally 
battlemented and turreted in 
imitation of the Edwardian 
castles. Ex. : Belvoir Castle, 
Penrhyn, etc. 

William IVilkins : New 
Court, Trinity College, Cambs., 
and the New Buildings, King's 
College, Cambs. 

Aui^ustus Welby Northmore 
Pus;in (181 2-1852), from being 
employed upon his father's 
books of mediaeval architec- 
ture, acquired an extraordinary 
knowledge of the style. He 
published a rousing pamphlet 
contrasting the " degraded " 
architecture of the day with 
what he called the " Chris- 
tian " style. A new spirit of 
church building was awakened, 



a pupil of Sir John Soane, 
erects Fitzwilliam Museum, 

Dcciimcs Burton ( 1 800- 1881): 
Screen at Hyde Park Corner 
in 1S24; Athen;tum CIuIj, Pall 
Mall; United Service Club, 
Pall Mall. 

//. L. F. lines (18 1 5- 1847): 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool, 
the most perfect design of the 
Classical School. The main 
hall is after the manner of the 
Roman Thermae. Externally 
a colonnade and portico design 
is handled with great effect. 
On the early death of Elmes, 
who, at the age of twenty-three, 
had successfully competed for 
the building. Prof. Cockerell 
completed the decoration of 
the interior. The vault was 
executed in hollow tiles by Sir 
Robert Rawlinson. 

Sir W. Tite (1798- 1873): 
Royal Exchange, London. 

Professor C. R. Cockerell, 
R.A. (1 788- 1 863), travelled 
much in Greece and Italy, and 
published an important folio 
of the Greek temples of .Egina 
and Bassit. He erected the 
Taylor and Randolph Institute, 
Oxford ; the .Sun Fire Office, 
Threadneedle Street, London; 
branches of the Bank of England 
at Manchester. Bristol, and 
Liverpool; and Hanover Cha- 
pel, Regent Street (lately con- 
demned to destruction). 

Sir Charles Barry (1795- 
1860) travelled extensively in 
Egypt, Greece, and Italy. He 
abandoned the fashion of use- 
less porticoes, and brought in 


and, by the earnest study of old 
work, a new era in the Gothic 
revival began. Pugin erects 
Roman Catholic churches at 
Nottingham, Derby, etc. ; St. 
George's Cathedral, South- 
wark ; St. Augustine's, Rams- 
gate, 1855. He works under 
Sir Charles Barry on the 
stained glass, metal work, fit- 
tings, etc., of the Houses of 

Sir Charles Barry: Birming- 
ham Grammar School, 1833; 
Houses of Parliament, 1840 
(No. 158), in which note the 
symmetry of leading lines on 



the " astylar " treatment of 
design. The Travellers' Club 
House, Pall Mall, shows the 
influence of the Pandolfini Pa- 
lace, Florence. It was followed 
by the Reform Club, Pall Mall, 
a design inspired by the Farnese 
Palace at Home. In Bridge- 
water House, the third of the 
series (1849), the influence of 
the Gothic revival is evidently 
felt, greater richness is sought 
after, and the Italian feeling is 
less strong. His final work, 
the Town Hall at Halifax, is 
a still more ornate example of 
the Renaissance, the intention 
being to combine picturescjue- 
ness with symmetrical state- 
liness. Other important works 
in the country are : Trentham 
Hall (where landscape gar- 
dening of the Italian School is 
admirably carried out), Shrub- 
lands, Highclerc, Chefden, etc. 
Si rj antes Pcnnethorne (1801- 
1871), at one time assistant to 
Nash, and influenced by Sir 
Charles Barry, also discarded 
porticoes as unnecessary and 
useless, and commenced a treat- 
ment more after Renaissance 
than Classic lines : Geological 
Museum, Piccadilly (after por- 
tion of the internal courtyard 
of the Doge's Palace, Venice) : 
London University, Burlington 
Gardens ; Somerset House, 
western facade. In his works 
the orders are sparingly used, 
l)ut the detail is refined. 

plan, the simplicity of idea, and 
the character of richness per- 
\ading the whole design, which 
is Classic in inspiration, and 
Gothic in clothing, carried out 
with scrupulous adherence to 
the spirit and detail of the Per- 
pendicular period. 

Pugin, under Sir Charles 
Barr^', directed the execution 
of the fittings, agreeing with 
the style of the building" and 
in marked contrast to the 
previous buildings of the Re- 

The immediate effect of the 
design of this great building 
was slight. It was the climax 
of the first idea of the move- 
ment — that of carrying on the 
Tudor style — so that, at the 
time of its completion, in i860, 
the attention of all was riveted 
on the earlier phases of medi- 
Ltval architecture which every- 
one was engaged in imitating. 

Barry marks the close of the 
Classic Revival. The influence 
of the Gothicists is now para- 
mount, and the final touch to 
this influence is given by the 
1 85 1 Exhibition, which in the 
end has done so much to raise 
the arts and crafts to a higher 
state of perfection. 














The Great Exhibition of 1851 causes tlie raising into 
prominence of the minor arts, such as metal work, glass 
paintmg, mosaics, decoration, sculptured works, etc., etc. 
The popularization of architecture by the architectural 
courts and models of buildings in the various styles, aroused 
an interest in the subject. The publication of "The 
Stones of Venice," by Ruskin, in 185 1, and the works of 
Beresford-Hope, Parker, Prof. Willis, Sharpe, Rev. J. L. 
Petit, and others, helped on the Gothic movement, while 
Prof Cockerell and Prof. Donaldson were writing on the 
Classic side. 


E. M. Barry (1831-ii 
Covent Garden Theatre ; The 
Art Union Building, Strand ; 
Charing Cross Station. 

Nelson: Junior United Ser- 
vice Club. 

F. P. Cockerell: The Free- 
masons' Tavern. 

Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877;: 
The Foreign Office. 

Sir Digby Wyatt (1820- 
1877): Courtyard to India 

Messrs. Banks and Barry: 
Burlington House ; the Court- 
yard and facade to Piccadilly. 

Sidney S?nirke : The storey 
added to Burlington House ; 
British Museum reading-room, 

Vulliatny : Dorchester 

House, London, a Venetian 
Renaissance palace has unique 
decorative work inside by 
Alfred Stevens. 


Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877): 
St. Mary, Stoke Newington ; 
the Martyrs' Memorial, Ox- 
ford ; church at Haley Hill, 
Halifax (1855); churchat Ham- 
burg ; St. George's, Doncaster 
(1853); St. Mary's Cathedral, 
Edinburgh ; St. Mary .Abbots, 
Kensington; the Albert Memo- 
rial ; St. Pancras Station ; many 
other new churches, houses, 
and restorations. 

Benjatnin Ferrey : .St. Ste- 
phen's, Westminster. 

IVilliani Biitterfield : Keble 
College, Oxford ; All Saints, 
Margaret Street, London; and 
St. Alban's, Holborn, all of 
which show the increasing de- 
sire for and study of colour. 

G. E. Street {\ 824- 1 88 1 ) erects 
St. Mar)' Magdalene, Pad- 
dington ; St. James the Less, 
Westminster, and the Law 
Courts, London. House in 



John Gibson : National Pro- Cadogan Square ; the Convent, 
vincial Banks in London and East Grinstead ; House and 
the provinces ; the Society for Church at Holm\vood,etc., etc. 
die Promotion of Christian W '^./)'//r_^vj'(iS28-i 88 1) erects 

Knowledge, in Northumber- Cork Cathedral ; restores Car- 
land Avenue, London ; Tod- diff Castle, and builds his own 
morden Town Hall, house in Melbury Road, etc. 

E. W. Godwiti : Congieton 
Town Hall and Bristol Assize 

A. ll'ater/iouse : Manchester 
Town Hall and Assize Courts. 
Deanc and Woodward : The 
Oxford Museum, directly the 
outcome of Ruskin's teaching 
in architecture. 

Note. — The work of the last four on the Gothic side, 
with that of Street in the Law Courts, may be taken 
as fully exemplifying the results of the revival in the 
sphere of domestic architecture. 

The restoration of a large number of cathedrals and 
churches, and the erection of an immense number of new 
churches, had powerfully aided the Gothic revival, which 
it was attempted to extend to buildings for every purpose ; 
until the movement met with a severe check in the decision, 
acquiesced in by Sir Gilbert Scott, to erect the Home and 
Foreign Offices in the classical, or as it was called, the modern 
style. The design thus dictated to Scott was not likely to 
be a masterpiece, and it is in fact but a poor compromise 
between modern French and the traditional Italian ideas of 
the Renaissance. After this crisis a new movement, due to 
Norman Shaw, Nesfield, and Philip Webb, then arose in 
favour of the Queen Anne style, or Free Classic, for domestic 
buildings, while churches and kindred buildings continue to 
be erected in a developed style of Gothic architecture. 

The works of Mr. Norman Shaw at this period were : The 
New Zealand Chambers in Leadenhall Street, London; 
many country houses such as " Whispers ; " and Lowther 
Lodge, Kensington, while his influence on the design of the 
smaller buildings in suburbs and country, by the erection of 



houses, etc., at Bedford Park, Chiswick, was immediate and 




The Science College, South 
Kensington, and the Albert 
Hall, by General Scott (as- 

E. M. Barry endeavours to 
introduce the Early French 
Renaissance, as in Temple 
Chambers, Victoria Embank- 
ment, London. 

Crossland: HoUoway Col- 
lege, Egham (after Chambord). 

WhicJiconi : S. Stephen's 

Davis and Ein)na7mel : City 
of London Schools. 

Barns: Duke of Buccleugh's 
House, Whitehall. 

Bodley and Gamer: London 
School Board Offices, Thames 
Embankment. The student 
confined to London may obtain 
an idea of the early French 
Renaissance style, by an in- 
spection of the above. 

H. Gribble: The Oratory at 
Brompton. (The Italian style 
a condition of the competition.) 

W. Young: Glasgow Muni- 
cipal BuildingSjinthe Palladian 




J. L. Pearson, R.A.: Truro 
Cathedral. His eight London 
churches : 

(i) Holy Trinity, Bess- 
borough Gardens. 

(2) St. Anne's, Lower Ken- 

nington Lane. 

(3) St. Augustine's, Kilburn. 

(4) St. John's, Red Lion Sq. 

(5) St. Michael, West Croy- 


(6) St. John's, Lower Nor- 


(7) Catholic Apostolic 

Church, Maida Hill. 

(8) Chiswick Parish Church, 

James Brooks: churches in 
Holland Road, Kensington, 
Gospel Oak, and many others 
round London. 

G. G. Scott: St. Agnes, 
Kennington ; churches at South- 
wark and Norwich ; the Greek 
Church, Moscow Road, Lon- 
don ; additions to Pembroke 
College, Cambridge. 

Bodley and Garner: church 
at Hoar Cross, Staffordshire ; 
Clumber Church; churches at 
Folkestone, etc. 

John Bentley : Roman Catho- 
lic church of St. Mary, Wat- 
ford ; the Convent in the Ham- 
mersmith Road, etc. 

Sir Arthur Blomfield: St. 
Mary, Portsea, and many other 
churches ; Sion College, 
Thames Embankment ; tlie 
Church House, Westminster. 



Note. — In the Admiralty and War Office competition, only 
one Gothic design was selected for the second com- 
petition. This practically publishes the death of the 
Gothic style for public buildings. The foundation of 
the South Kensington Museum carried further the 
influence of the 1851 Exhibition, by its illustration of 
ancient decorative art, and by the atelier which was 
there maintained for some years. 


R. Nonnaii Sliaio (later 
buildings) : Alliance .\ssurance 
Office, Pall Mali ; houses at 
Queen's Gate, London ; house 
near Salisbury, in the Wren 
style ; New Scotland Yard 

T. G. Jackson: Work at 
Oxford. The examination 
schools, and addit.ons to col- 
leges in revived Elizabethan. 

Er/u'st George and Peto. 
Influence of Flemish Renais- 
sance : works at Collingham 
( jardens and Cadogan Scjuarc. 
London ; houses at Streatham 
Common ; Buchan Hill, Sus- 
sex, etc. 

E. R. Robson and J.J. Steven- 
son. Work for London School 
Board : London vernacular 
style in red dressings and 
vellow stock bricks. 


Pa ley and A nstt'ii : churches 

in Lancashire. 

Douglas and P'ordliam : 

churches and half timber- work 

domestic in Chester, etc. 

/. D. Sedding (1837-1892).- 
Holy Trinity Church, Chelsea, 
marks the raising of the arts 
and crafts into their proper 
importance ; the church of the 
Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell 
(a new version of the Wren 
style) ; St. Clement, Bourne- 
mouth, and domestic work 

Revival of terra-cotta as 
a building material. 

Charles Barry: Dulwich 

Alfred IVaterJwuse : The 
Natural History Museum. 

R. W. Edis: Constitutional 
Club, London. 

The latest works of va- 
rious tendencies. 

T. E. Collcntt : Imperial In- 

E. \V. Moimtford: Sheffield 
Town Hall; Battersea Town 
Hall ; Battersea Polytechnic. 

J. M. Brydon: Chelsea 


AstoiWebbandlngressBell : Town Hall and Polytechnic; 

Bimiinjfham Assize Courts. Bath Municipal Buildings. 

7". A^G-'//t7///.• English Opera J. Belcher: Institute of 

House, London ; City Bank, Chartered Accountants, Lon- 

London. don. 


During the last fifty years, the pages of the professional 
journals have contained most of the noteworthy buildings 
erected, and it is a source of much pleasure and instruction, 
to go carefully through these records of the developments 
which have taken place ; and which seem to show that a style 
or manner in architecture is being slowly worked out, which 
may, it is to be hoped, resist all revivals and fashions, and 
become the free expression of our own civilization, and the 
outward symbol of our nineteenth century progression. 




Abacus (Gk. al>ax = Vi board). 
— A square or rectangular table 
forming the crowning member of 
a capital. In Grecian Doric, square 
without chamfer or moulding 
(No. 15). In Grecian Ionic, thinner 
with ovolo moulding only (Xo. 
23). In the Roman Ionic and the 
Corinthian, the sides are hollowed 
on plan and have their angles cut 
off (Nos. 24 and 26). In the 
Romanesque period, the abacus is 
deeper but projects less and is 
moulded with rounds and hollows, 
or merely chamfered on the lower 
edge. In Gothic architecture we 
find that the circular or octagonal 
abacus is mostly favoured in 
England, while the square abacus 
is a French feature (No. 79). 

Abutment. — The solid 
masonry which resists the lateral 
pressure of an arch. 

Acanthus. — A plant, whose 
leaves conventionally treated, form 
the lower portions of the Corin- 
thian capital (No. 31, D, F). 

Acroteria (Gk. the extremity 
of anything). Bases or blocks of 
stone resting on the vertex and 
lower extremities of the pediment 
and intended for the support of 
statuary or ornaments. 

Aisle (Lat. a/a = a wing). — The 

lateral divisions which run parallel 
with the nave in a Gothic Cathedral 
(Nos. 69, 70, 71). 

Amphi-prostyle (Gk. both 
with columns before). — A Temple 
having a portico at both extremities 
(No. 18, v.). 

Annulet (Lat. annulus = ^ 
ring). - A small flat fillet encircling 
a column. It is used several times 
repeated under the ovolo or echinus 
of the Doric Capital (Nos. 20 
and 21). 

Anta (plural an/ir). — Pilasters 
terminating the side wall of a 

Anfefixae (Lat. anfe, before, 
Jt^o, I fix). — Ornamental blocks, 
vertic.dly fixed at regular intervals 
along the lower portion of a roof, 
to cover the joints of the tiles 
(Nos. 15, 31). 

Apse (Gk. signifying an arch). 
The circular or multangular ter- 
mination of a cathedral choir ; 
the term being firstly applied to a 
Roman basilica. The apse is a 
continental feature, contrasts with 
the square termination of English 
Gothic work (Nos. 42, 43, 44, 62). 

Arches are of various forms, and 
can be best understood by referring 
to No. 159. 

Architrave (Gk. = chief beam). 



— The beam or lowest division of 
the entablature which extends from 
column to column (No. 15). The 
term is also applied to the moulded 
frame which Iwunds the sides and 
head of a door or window opening. 

Archivolt. — The mouldings on 
ihe face c)f an arch resting on the 
impost (No. 58). 

Ashlar — .Squared stonework in 
regular courses, in comparison with 
rubble work. 

Astragal (Gk. = a knuckle- 
bone). A small semicircular mould- 

Astylar. — A treatment of fa9ade 
without columns (No. 118). 

Attic. — A term generally ap- 
]ilied to the upper story of a build- 
ing above the main cornice ; also 
applied to low rooms in a roof 
(Nos. loi, 141, 143). 

Ball -flower. — The character- 
istic ornament of decorated Gothic 
architecture (No. 84). 

Baluster. — A small pillar or 
column supporting a handrail 
(No. 134). 

Base. —The lower portion of 
any construction. 

Basilica (Gk. basileus, a king). 
— A term which came to be applied 
to a large hall for the administration 
of justice (page 59), Nos. 45 and 46. 

Bay. — The divisions into which 
the nave of a mediaeval church is 

Belfry. — A term generally 
applied to the upper room in a 
tower in which the bells are hung 
(No. 104). 

Boss (Fr. basse = lump or 
knob). A projecting ornament, 
placed at the intersection of the 
ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted or 
flat. The term is also applied to 
the curved termination to the 
weather-mouldings of doors and 
windows. Bosses are often carved 
with great delicacy, with heads of 

angels or flowers and folingo 
(No. 91). 

Broach-spire. — A sjiire rising 
above a tower without a parapet, 
as in Early English works. 

Buttress (Fr. aboutir = to He 
out). — A mass of masonr}' pro- 
jecting beyond the face of the wall 
to resist the pressure of an arch or 
vault. The development in each 
century will be noted under each 
style (Nos. 97, 98, 99, 100). 

Byzantine architecture. — 
The style evolved at Constantinople 
or Byzantium in the fifth century 
(page 89), and which is essentially 
the style of the Eastern or Greek 
church to the present day. 

Canopy. —A covering over 
niches, tombs, etc. 

Capital (Lat. caput — ■ix head). 
The upper portion of a column or 
pilaster (Nos. 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 
26, 54). 

Chancel (Lat. cancelhis — a. 
screen). — The portion set apart for 
the clergy and choir and separated 
by a screen from the body of the 

Chapels. Places of worship, 
attached to churches, in honour of 
particular saints, sometimes erected 
as separate buildings (Nos. 69, 70, 

71, 94, 95)- 

Chapter-house (Lat. capitu- 
lum) usually opened out of the 
cloisters on the easternmost side, 
as at Westminster. It was the 
place of assembly for the dean 
and canons of a cathedral for the 
transaction of business. It was 
usually polygonal on plan, with a 
vault resting on a central pillar. 
Ex. Lincoln, York, etc. (Nos. 69, 
73) ; sometimes oblong as at 

Chevet. — The circular or poly- 
gonal termination of a cathedral, 
the apse bemg surrounded by 
chapels (No. 95). 



Choir {see Chancel). 

Choragus. — A term given in 
( Ireece to those who superintended 
a musical entertainment, and pro- 
vided a chorus at their own ex- 

Clerestory. — The upper divi- 
sion in the nave of a church above 
(he triforium (Nos. 97, 98, 99, 1 00). 
Probably derived from the French 
,/atr = light, being obtained at this 
stage. _ 

Cloisters. — A square open 
space, surrounded by covered pas- 
sages of communication, connect- 
ing the cathedral to the chapter- 
house, refector}', etc. , of the monas- 
tery to which they were attached. 
They were generally placed on the 
south of the nave, and west of the 
transept, as at Westminster (Xos. 
69, 73)- The desire for sunlight 
and warmth probably suggested 
this position. 

Coffers. — Panels formed in 
ceilings, vaults, (jr domes (Nos. 

35. 46, 139)- 

Column (Lat. columiid). — A 
vertical sup]iort, generally con- 
sisting of a base, shaft, and capital 
(Nos. 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26). 

Corbels (Lat. iorbis = a basket) 
are blocks of stone projecting from 
a wall, and supporting the beams 
of a roof or any weight ; they are 
often elaborately carved and 
moulded (No. 75). 

Corinthian. — The third order of 
Grecian architecture (Nos. 25, 26). 

Cornice (Fr. iorii7c/ie)—\r\ 
Greek architecture the crowning 
or upper portion of the entablature 
(Nos. 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26), 
used as the term for any crowning 
projection (No. iiS). 

Cortile.- — The Italian name 
adopted in English for the internal 
area, or courtyard, surrounded by 
an arcade of a palace, or other 
edifice (No. 145). 

Corona. — The square ]irojcc- 
tion of the upper j^art of the 
cornice, having abroad vertical face 
generally plain, and with its soffit 
or under portion recessed so as to 
form a drip, which (as its name 
implies) prevents water from 
running down the building (Nos. 
15, 20, 21). 

Crocket (Fr. cr^^rrra hook). 
Projecting leaves or bunches of 
foliage used in Gothic architecture 
to decorate the angles of spires, 
canopies, etc. (Nos. 84, 86), as in 
the spires of Ratisbon (No. 106). 

Crypts (Gk. krupie = 2L vault), 
are vaults, either entirely or partly 
beneath a building. In churches 
they generally occur beneath the 
chancel. In early times they were 
used as places of burial. 

Cupola (L. ciipa = Qw^'). — A 
spherical roof, rising like an in- 
verted cup over a circular or 
multangular building (Nos. 35, 49, 
50, 52, 53, 60, 122, 123, 131, 138, 
139, 154, 155). 

Cusps (Lat. atspis = 2. point). — 
The trefoil, quatrefoil etc., termin- 
ations of Gothic tracery (Nos. 81, 
82, 83, 86\ 

Cymatium. — The crowning 
member of a cornice, so called from 
its contour resembling that of wave 
(Nos. 15, 30). 

Decastyle. — A portico of ten 
columns (No. 18, x.). 

Dentils (Lat. denies = \qq\^). — 
Tooth-like ornaments occurring 
originally in the Ionic and 
Corinthian cornices (Nos. 2=;, 26). 

Diaper. — Any small pattern of 
flowers etc. , repeated continuously 
over the wall as at the nave, 
Westminster Abbey. 

Dipteral(Gk. = double-winged). 
— A temple having a double range 
of columns on each of its sides 
(No. 18, X.). 

Dog-tooth. — An ornament re- 



sembling its name, specially 
occurring in Early English work 
(Nos. 82, 84). 

Lome. — (It. (/!eo//io = cathe- 
dra.]}. — The custom in Italy being 
to erect cupolas over churches, the 
word dome in English and French 
has passed from the building to 
this form of roof (stv cupola). 

Doric— The earliest "order" 
of architecture (Nos. 15,20, 21,22). 

Dormer. —A window in a 
sloping roof. It was usually the 
window of the sleeping apart- 
ments, hence the name (Nos. loi, 

141, 143)- 

Dripstone, also label, and 
hood-mould, is a projecting mould- 
ing in Gothic architecture placed 
over the heads of doorways, win- 
dows, archways, etc. , generally for 
the purpose of throwing off the rain 
(Nos. 82, 86, 92). 

Early English.— The first of 
the three divisions of Gothic archi- 
tecture, which was being evolved 
during the thirteenth century. 

Eaves. — The lower portion of 
a roof projecting beyond the face 
of the wall (No. 150). 

Echinu 5. — Properly the egg- 
and-dart ornament originally used 
in the Ionic capital ; often used for 
the bold projecting ovolo of the 
Doric cap (Nos. 15, 20, 21, 29). 

Entablature. — The portion of 
a structure supported by a 
colonnade, in Greek architecture 
comprising the architrave, frieze 
and cornice (Nos. 15, 20, 21, 23, 
24, 25, 26). 

Exhedra (Gk. =out of a chair). 
— A recess occurring in a larger 
room. In Greek buildings, the dis- 
putations of the learned were held 
in such recesses, so called from 
containing a number of seats. 

Fa9ade. — The front view or 
elevation of a building (as No. 1 19). 

Fan -vault. — A system of 

vaulting peculiar to English per- 
pendicular work, all the ribs 
having the same curve, resembling 
the frame-work of a fan (No. 85, 
F, No. 91). 

Fascia (Lat. facics^z. face). — 
A flat vertical face in the entabla- 
ture. The architrave of the Ionic 
and Corinthian orders is divided 
into two or more fascicr (Nos. 23, 
24, 25, 26). 

Finial (Lat. y?;«> = the end). — 
The top or finishing portion of a 
pinnacle, bench end, or other 
architectural feature (Nos. 75, 86, 

Fleche. — A term generally 
applied to a wooden spire sur- 
mounting a roof. 

Fluting. — The vertical chan- 
nelling on the shaft of a column 
(Nos. 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26). 

Flying-buttress. — A buttr>.:ss 
springing by means of an arch over 
the aisle of a church, and counter- 
acting the thrust of the nave vault 
(Nos. 89, 90, 97, 98, 99, 100). 

Frieze (It. />'£'.o-/^ = adorn). — 
The middle division of the entabla- 
ture (Nos. 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 

Gable. — The triangular portion 
of a wall, marked by the in- 
closing line of the roof (Nos. 75, 
So). (In classic architecture it is 
called the pediment. No. 15.) 

Gargoyle. — A projecting water- 
spout in Gothic architecture to 
throw off the water from the roof, 
often grotesquely carved (No. lOO). 

Groin. — The angle formed by 
the intersection of vaults (No. 85). 

Guttae or Drops. — Small 
pyramids or cones occurring under 
the triglyphs and mutules of the 
Doric entablature (Nos. 15,20,21). 

Half-timbered construction. 
— A structure formed of wooden 
posts, and the interstices filled with 
brick or plaster (No. 150). 



Hammer-beam roof. — A 
Gothic form of roof for diminishing 
the thrust on the walls, the finest 
example being Westminster Hall, 

Hexastyle. — A row of six 
columns (No. 18, vi., vii.). 

Hypaethral (Gk. = under the 
air). A building or temple without 
a roof or possessing a central space 
open to the sky. 

Hypostyle — A pillared hall. 

Impost (Lat. i>npono= I lay on). 
The member usually formed of 
mouldings, on which the arch 
immediately rests (Nos. 38, 58, 
82, 86). 

Intercolumniation. — The 
space between the columns (No. 


Ionic. — {Sec p. 42, Nos. 23, 24. ) 

Jambs. — The sides of the 
openings of doors and windows 
(Nos. 116, 117). 

Keystone. — The central stone 
of an arch (Nos. 38, 159). 

King-post. — A beam extending 
from the ridge, supporting the tie- 
beam in the centre (No. 156). 

Lancet arch. —A sharp pointed 
arch, resembling a lancet, chiefly in 
use during the Early English 
thirteenth century period (Nos. 83, 


Lierne. — A short intermediate 
rib in vaulting (No. 91). 

Lintel. — The piece of timber 
or stone that covers an opening, and 
supports a weight above it (Nos. 
4, 8, 28). 

Loggia. — A gallery open to the 
air, and forming a shelter. 

Metope (Gk. = a hole between). 
— The space between the Doric 
triglyphs. In ancient examples 
it was left quite open, hence the 
name (Nos. 15, 20, 21). 

Modillions. — The projecting 
brackets in the Corinthian cornice 
(Nos. 24, 26). 

Module. — A measure of 

proportion, by which the parts of 
a classic order or building are 
regulated, being usually the semi- 
diameter of a column, which is 
divided into thirty parts or minutes 
(Nos. 15, 20, 21). 

Mosaic. — A method of forming 
decorative surfaces by small cubes 
of stone, glass and marble ; much 
used in Roman and later times for 
floors and wall decoration {see Nos. 
44, 49, 52, 61). 

Mouldings. — The contours 
given to ]3rojecting members {see 
page 48, etc., Nos. 29, 30). 

Mullions are used in Gothic 
architecture, to divide the windows 
into different numbers of lights, 
these being usually glazed in leaded 
panes (Nos. 81, 83, 89, 90). 

Mutule. — The projecting in- 
clined blocks in the Greek Doric 
cornice, supposed to be derived 
from the ends of wooden rafters 
(Nos. 15, 2c, 21). 

Naos. — The cell or principal 
chamber in a temple, see sheet of 
plans (No. 18). The English nave 
is derived from the Gk. naos, and 
signifies the central or main divi- 
sion of the plan (Nos 69, 70, "]!, 

94, 95)- 

Nave {see Naos). The central 
division of a church, west of the 
choir (Nos. 69, 70, 71, 94, 95). 

Necking. — The space between 
the astragal of the shaft and the 
commencement of the cap proper 
(Nos. 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 

Newel. — (i) The central shaft, 
round which the steps of a circular 
staircase wind, (2) also applied to 
the post in which the handrail is 

Niche. — A recess in a wall for 
the reception of a statue or 
ornament (No. 93). 

Norman. — The style which 
preceded the Early English in this 



country, also termed English 

Octastyle. — A range of eight 
columns (No. i8, viii., xi., 

Ogee. — A term applied to a 
form of moulding (No. 30). 

Opisthodomus. — The space or 
chaml)er behind the cella in a 
Greek Temple, see plans (No. 18). 

Order. — In architecture, sig- 
nifies a column, with its base, shaft 
and capital, and the entablature 
which it supports (Nos. 15, 20, 21, 
23, 24, 25, 26). 

Oriel.- — A window, semi- 
hexagonal or octagonal on plan, 
corbelled out from the face of the 
wall by means of projecting stones 
(No. 105). 

Ovolo. — (See No. 30). 

Panel. — The compartments 
formed liy the framing of timbers. 

The parapet [{ia\. parapetto = 
breast high), is the upper portion 
of the wall above the roof; it is 
sometimes battlemented, a method 
derived from purposes of defence 
(Nos. 75, 80, 84, 89). 

Pediment. — In classic archi- 
tecture the triangular termination 
of the roof of a temple [see 
frontispiece and Nos. 15, 22). In 
Gothic architecture, it is called the 

Peripteral. — An edifice sur- 
rounded by a range of columns 
(No. 18, iii., viii., etc.). 

Peristyle. — Arange of columns 
surrounding a court or temple {see 
sheet of plans, No. 18). 

Perpendicular. — A phase of 
English Gothic evolved from the 
Decorated style, and in use during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
in England (.fd'f page 158), so called 
from the lines of the tracery in 

Pier. — The mass of masonry 
supporting an arch or beam, etc. , 

in contradistinction to a circular 
column (Nos. 66, 87, 88). 

Pilaster. — An anta ur square 
pillar, projecting about one-sixth 
of its breadth from the wall, and 
of the same proportion as the order 
with which it is used (No. 26). 

Pinnacle. — A small turret-like 
termination, placed on the top of 
buttresses or elsewhere, often orna- 
mented upon its angles by bunches 
of foliage called crockets (Nos. 80, 
90, 107). 

Piscina (Lat. = a reservoir 
of water) is a small niche near the 
altar, with a hole in the bottom 
to carry ofl" the water in which 
the priest washed his hands, and 
also that in which the chalice 
was rinsed. 

Plinth. — A low square step on 
which a column is placed (Nos. 
21, 23, 24, 25, 26). 

Plan. — The representation of a 
building showing the general dis- 
tribution of its parts in horizontal 
section {see Nos. 18, 39, 40, 42, 
48, 51, 55, 69, 70, 71, 94, 95, 
III, 112, 124, 125, 126, 127, 
132, 136, 147, 148). 

Podium. — A low pedestal wall ; 
also the inclosing wall of the arena 
ofan amphitheatre (Nos. 27 and 37). 

Portico. — The space inclosed^ 
within columns and forming a 
covered ambulatory (Nos. 34, 138, 


Pronaos. — The part of the 
temple in front of the naos (often 
a similar meaning with Portico). 

Propylseum (Gk. =a portal in 
front of). — An entrance gate or 
vestibule, in front of a building or 
set of buildings. 

Prostyle (Gk. =a column in 
front). — An open portico, standing 
in front of the building to which it 
belongs (No. 18, iv. ). 

Pseudo-dipteral (Gk. false 
double-winged), i.e., in which the 


inner range of columns is omitted in 
a colonnade, wliicli is ap]iarently 
two columns in depth (No. 18, xi. ). 

Pulvinated (Lat. =a pillow). 
A frieze, whose face is convex in 
profile, is said to be pulvinated. 

Pycnostyle. — {See No. 19.) 

Quatrefoil (Fr. quatre-feuilles 
= four leaves). — In tracery a cir- 
cular panel divided into four leaves 
(No. 159). 

Renaissance (Fr. rebirth). — 
The re-introduction of classic forms 
in architecture, all over Europe, in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
(For the causes which led up to 
this movement, see page 200. ) 

Rib. — A term used in Ciothic 
vaulting (see Nos. 59, 85). 

Ridge. — The highest point of a 
roof, running from end to end. 

Rococo style. — A debased 
application of Renaissance feature 
{see page 230). 

Rose - window, see wheel- 
window (Nos. 63, 65, 75, 93). 

Rustication. — A method of 
forming stonework with a rough- 
ened lace, principally employed 
in Renaissance buildings as at 
Florence etc. (No. 118). 

Screen. — A partition or in- 
closure of wood, often elaborately 
carved, and separating the choir 
from the nave. The Latin cancellns 
= screen, corrupted to "chancel," 
primarily used for the inclosing ob- 
ject, was afterwards applied to that 
which it inclosed (No. 52). 

Scotia (Gk. jr<7/?'a = darkness). 
— The concave moulding in the 
base of a column, throwing a deep 
shadow (No. 30). 

Section. — A term used by 
architects to express the represen- 
tation of a building, divided into 
two parts by a vertical plane, so as 
to show the construction. The 
term is also applied to any solid in 
the same way. (Nos. 3, 6, 16, 17, 

43- 56, 97> 98, 99. 100, 139, 154, 

Sedilia (Lat. = seat) are the 
seats for the priests, generally 
of masonry, placed in the wall on 
the south side of the chancel. 

Shaft.— The portion of the 
column between the base and 
capital (No. 15). 

Soffit. The ceiling ; the under- 
side of any architectural member. 

Spandrel. — The triangular 
space between the curve of an arch 
and the square inclosing it (Nos. 
38, 62). 

Spire. — The pointed termina- 
tion to the tower of a church in 
Gothic architecture ; usually octa- 
gonal on plan (Nos. 78, 96, ic6, 

Stalls are divisions or fixed seats 
for the clergy and choir, and are 
often elaborately carved. They 
have large projecting elbows and 
carved "misereres," and are often 
surmounted by overhanging 
canopies. The bishop's seat is 
called the "throne." The student 
should visit Henry VII. 's Chapel at 
\Yestminster, and the Abbey Choir. 

Steeple. — The term applied to 
the tower of a church, including the 

Stilted arch (j-,rNos. 74, 159). 

Stoa. — A portico (Nos. 34. 
138, 155)- 

Storey. — The vertical divisions 
ofabuilding, by the means of floors. 

Stylobate. — The base or sub- 
structure on which a colonnade is 
placed (Nos. 15, 16, 17, 22). 

Systyle. — [See No. 19.) 

Tenia.— The band or fillet 
forming the upper member of the 
Doric architrave (Nos. 15, 20, 21). 

Terra cotta.— Earth baked or 
burnt and formed into moulds, 
and used ornamentally. A fine 
example, used constructionally, is 
Layer Marney Towers, Essex. 



Tetrastyle. — A portico of four 
columns (No. i8, iv., v., xii.). 

Torus. — A large convex 
moulding, used principally in the 
bases of columns (Nos. 29, 30). 

Trabeated(L. tral>s = a. beam). 
— A style of architecture, such as 
the Greek, inwhich the beam forms 
the constructive type. 

Tracery is the ornamental 
pattern-work in stone, filling the 
upper part of a Gothic window ; 
it may be either " plate "or " bar " 
tracery. The term is also applied 
to work of the same character in 
wood panelling, etc. (Nos. 81, 83, 
89, 90, 93, 96, loi). 

Transept — The part of a 
church, projecting at right angles 
to the main building {see Nos. 69, 
70, 74, 94, 95). 

Transoms are the horizontal 
divisions or cross-bars to the 
windows (Nos. 83, 89, 90). 

Trefoil {trois-feiiilUs = three 
leaves). — A term applied to this 
distribution in Gothic tracery 
(No. 159). 

Triforium. — The spaceformed 

between the sloping roof over the 
aisle and the aisle vaulting. It 
occurs in large churches only, and, 
from having no windows to the 
open air, is often called a blind 
storey (Nos. 72, 97, 98, 99, 100). 

Triglyphs (Gk.= three chan- 
nels) occur in the frieze of a 
Doric entablature (Nos. 15, 20, 

Turrets are small towers, often 
containing staircases (No. 89). 

Tympanum. — The triangular 
space within the raking cornices of 
a pediment {see frontispiece, and 
No. 15). 

Vault. — An arched covering in 
stone or brick over any space (Nos. 

35 'iiitl 85)- 

Vebtibule. — An ante-room to 
a larger apartment, or to a house. 

Volute (Lat. ■?■<?////« = a scroll). 
The scroll or spiral occurring in 
the Ionic and Corinthian capitals 
(Nos. 23, 24, 25, 26). 

Wheel-window. —A circular 
window, whose niullions converge 
like the spokes of a wheel, hence 
the name (Nos. 63, 65, 75, 93). 


(See also Table of Co/iietits and Glossary of Terms.) 

Abbaye-aux-Dames, Caen, 122. 
Abbaye-aux-Hoinmes, Caen, 122. 
Adam Brothers, architects, 284. 
^gina, temple of Zeus, 41. 
Agrigentum, temples at, 41. 
Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral t Charle- 
magne's tomb), 194, 128. 
Alberti, architect, 212, 216. 
Alcala, archbishop's palace, 257. 

University, 257. 
Alcazar, Toledo, 257. 
Alessi, architect, 230. 
Alhambra, palace of Charles \'. , 

Amiens Cathedral, 166, 167, 168, 

Amphitheatres at Aries, Nimes, 

Pola, Rome, Verona, 65. 
Amsterdam, Stadthaus, 252. 
Angouleme Cathedral, 121. 
Anio noviis, aqueduct, 68. 
Antoninus and Faustina, temple 

of, 56. 
Antwerp Cathedral, 174, 175. 

Town hall, 252. 
Apollo Epicurius, temple of, Bas- 

sk; 41, 43. 
Apollodorus, architect, 59. 
Aqua Claudia, aqueduct, 68. 
Arch of Septimius Severus, 66. 

of Titus, Rome, 66. 
Architects and buildings (English) 

of eighteenth century, 280. 
of nmeteenth century (1st 

half). 285. 

Architects and buildings (English) 
ol nineteenth century (2nd 
half), 2S9. 
Aries, St. Gilles, 121. 

St. Trophime, 121. 
Aston Hall, 267. 
Assisi, St. Francis, 188. 
Assyria, map of, 22. 
Athens, Choragic monument of 
Lysicrates, 43. 
Erechtheion, 38, 43, 45. 
Parthenon, 38, 40, 41, 45. 
Propylasa, 41, 42, 45. 
Temple of Jupiter Olympius, 

3S, 56. 
Theseion, 38, 41. 
Tower of the Winds, 38, 43, 45. 
Atreus, tomb of, 37. 
Audley End, Essex, 270. 

Baalbec, temples at, 56. 
Babylonian Empire, map of, 22. 
Babylonian temple of Birs Xim- 

roud, 25. 
Banqueting house, Whitehall, 274. 
Baptisteries, 84. 
Baptistery at Pisa, 108. 

of Constantine, 85. 

of St. Agnese, 85. 

of St. Stephano Rotundo, 85, 
Barcelona, Cathedral, 195. 

St. jNIaria del Mar, 196, 198. 
Barfreston Church, Kent, 148, 149. 
Bari, San Nicolo, 116. 
Barnac Church, 146. 



Basilica of Maxentius, 60. 

St. Agnese, Rome, 83. 

St. Clemente, Rome, 83. 

St. John Lateral!, Rome, 83. 

St. Lorenzo, Rome, 83. 

St. Maria Maggiore, J\ome, 84. 

St. Miniato, Florence, 86, 109. 

St. Paul, Rome, 83. 

St. Peter, Rome, 83, 84. 

Trajan, 59. 
Bassse, temple of Apollo Epicurius, 

41, 43- 
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, 61. 

of Diocletian, Rome, 63. 
Beauvais Cathedral, Iu6. 
Bell tower, Evesham, 159. 
Beni Hassan, tomb at, 12, 31. 
Bernini, architect, 220, 231. 
Berruguete, sculptor, 261. 
Beverley Minster, 158. 
Birs Nimroud, temple at, 25. 
Blois, chateau de, 234, 235. 
Bologna, church at, 185. 

palace at, 217. 
Bonn Cathedral, 128. 
Borromini, architect, 231. 
Bourges Cathedral, 166, 167, 169. 

house of Jacques Coeur, 167. 
Bow Church, Cheapside, 203, 27S. 
Braniante, architect, 215, 219, 229. 
Bramshill, Hants, 270, 271. 
Brixworth Church, 146. 
Bruges Townhall, 174. 
Brunelleschi, architect, 209, 212. 
Brunswick, cloth hall, 247. 
Brussels Cathedral, 173, 174. 

Townhall, 174. 
Buildings and architects (English) 
of eighteenth century, 280. 

ofnineteenthcentury( 1st half), 

of nineteenth century (2nd 
half), 289. 
liuon, Giovanni and Bartolommeo, 

architects, 185. 
liLirghley, Lines., 268, 270. 
Burgos, Casa Miranda, 257. 

Cathedral, 194, 197, 198, 259, 

Bury, chateau de, 238. 

Ca d'Oro Palace, Venice, 1S6. 
Caen, Abbaye-aux-Dames, 122. 

Abbaye-aux-Hommes, 122. 

Church of St. Nicholas, 122. 
Caius College, Cambridge ; Gate 

of Honour, 268. 
Cambridge, colleges at, 159. 

GateofHonour,Caius College, 

King's College, 154, 158- 161. 

Library, Trinity College, 278. 

Neville's Court, Trinity Col- 
lege, 268. 

quadrangle,Clare College, 26S. 
Campanile, CHotto's, at Florence, 

St. Mark's, Venice, 113. 

St- Zenone, Verona, 113, 
Cancellaria Palace, Rome, 215. 
Canterbury Cathedral, 134, 139, 

140, 153, 160, 169, 171. 
Capella Palatina, Palermo, 116. 
Capitol, Rome, 218. 
Caprarola, palace at, 217, 236. 
Caracalla, baths of, 61. 
Carlisle Cathedral, 142. 
Carrnona Cathedral, 260. 
Caryatides, 46. 
Casa Infanta, Santiago, 260. 

Miranda, Burgos, 257. 

Monterey, Salamanca, 260. 
Castle of St. Angelo, Rome, 67. 
Castles, Roman, in Englanil, 133. 
Cathedral, Aix-la-Chapelle, 94. 
Caudebec, houses at, 167. 
Cecilia Metella, tomb of, 67. 
Certosa, Pavia, 185, 230. 
Chambord, chateau de, 234. 235, 

241, 243. 
Chartres Cathedral, 166, 169, 171. 
Chateau de Blois, 234, 235. 

de Bury, 238. 

de Chambord, 234, 235, 241, 

de Mont St. Michel, 168. 

de Pierrefonds, 168. 
Chelsea Hospital, 278. 


Chester, houses at, 145. 
Chevron ornament, 149. 
Chichester Cathedral, 142, 169. 
Chilham Castle, Kent, 273. 
Chiswick, Duke of Devonshire's 

villa, 274. 
Choragic monument of Lysicrates, 

Church of the Apostles, Cologne, 

103, 128, 129. 
Circular churches in England, 133. 

east ends in England, 139. 
Clare College, Cambridge ; quad- 
rangle, 268. 
Clermont, Notre Dame du Port, 

Cley Church, Norfolk, 156. 
Cloaca Maxima, Rome, 55. 
Cloth hall, Brunswick, 247. 
Cnidus, lion tomb at, 45. 
Cologne, the Cathedral, 178- 1 80, 
203, 220. 
church of the Apostles, 103, 

128, 129. 
dwelling-house, 179. 
Rathhaus, 248. 
St. Cunibert, 128. 
St. Maria in Capitolio, 128. 
St. Martin, 128. 
Colosseum, Rome, 2, 64. 
Composite order, 77. 
Compton Wynyates, 144. 
Consiglio Palace, Verona, 207, 

Constantine, baptistery of, 85. 
Constantinople, church of the Holy 
Apostles, 95. 
SS. Sergius and Bacchus, 94. 
St. Sophia, 92, 220. 
Cordova, bridge at, 69. 
Corinth, temple at, 34, 37, 41. 
Corinthian order, 36, 43, 76. 
Cornaro Palace, Venice, 224. 
Coutances Cathedral, 166, 167, 

Cremona, church at, 1S5. 
Crosby Hall, 143. 

De Brosse, architect, 237. 

Deerhurst Church, 147. 
Delia Porta, architect, 219. 
Delia Robbia, sculptor, 207, 209. 
De Lorme, architect, 237. 
Diana at Ephesus, temple of, 43. 
Diocletian's baths at Rome, 63. 

palace at Spalatro, 69. 

temple at Spalatro, 69. 
Divinity schools, Oxford, 154. 
Doge's palace, Venice, 185, 222, 

Donatello, sculptor, 207, 209. 
Doric order, 36, 40, 76. 
Dover Castle Church, 146. 
Dresden, Frauen Kirche, 248. 

Z winger Palace, 248. 
Du Cerceau, architect, 237. 
Durham Cathedral, 139, 141, 149, 

1 68. 
Dutch church, Austin Friars, 155. 
Dwellings, Egyptian, 16. 

Greek, 70. 

Roman, 71. 

Earl's Barton Church, 146. 

Edfou, temple at, 15. 

Egypt, map of, 6. 

Egyptian Court, Crystal Palace, 
19, 20. 

Egyptians, buildings of, 16. 

Eighteenth century, English archi- 
tects and buildings of, 280. 

Eleusis, temple at, 38. 

Elizabethan mansion, description 
of, 266. 

Eltham Palace, 156. 

Ely Cathedral, 139, 141, 155. 

Ephesus, temple of Diana, 43. 

Erechtheion, Athens, 38, 43, 45. 

Escurial Palace, 258. 

Exeter Cathedral, 142. 

Farnese Palace, Rome, 216. 
Farnese Villa, Rome, 216. 
Farsetti Palace, Venice, 112. 
Flavian Amphitheatre, Rome, 64. 
Florence, basilica of St. Miniato, 
86, 109. 
Campanile, 186, 



P'lorence, Cathedral, 182, 186, 189, 
207, 212, 220. 

Chapel of the Pazzi, 212. 

Guadagni Palace, 211. 

Pandolfini Palace, 211, 217. 

Pitti Palace, 211, 212, 237. 

Riccardi Palace, 211. 

Ruccellai Palace, 211, 212. 

St. Spirito, 212. 

Strozzi Palace, 211. 
Fondaco del Tuichi, Venice, 112. 
Fontainebleau, palace at, 235, 

Fortuna Virilis, Rome, temple of, 

FraGiocondo, architect, 219, 226. 
Frauenkirche, Dresden, 248. 

Gate of Honour, Caius College, 

Cambridge, 268. 
Gateway of the Schools, Oxford, 

269, 271. 
Gaudagni Palace, 211. 
Genoa, Carignano Church, 258. 
Cathedral, 182, 185. 
Palazzo Bianco, 230. 
Palazzo Rosso, 231. 
Geological Museum, London, 223. 
Gerona Cathedral, 195, 198. 
Ghent Townhall, 174, 175. 
Ghiberti, sculptor, 202, 207, 209. 
Giotto's campanile, Plorence, 186. 
Giraud Palace, Rome, 215. 
Girolamo da Trevigi, architect, 

Gloucester Cathedral, 142, 154, 

158, 160. 
Gothic vaulting, synopsis of, 153. 
Granada Cathedral, 259, 260. 

Palace of Charles V., Alham- 

bra, 257. 
Greece, map of, 33. 
Greek dwellings, 70. 
Theatres, 44, 63. 
Greenwich Hospital, 274, 278. 
Grimani Palace, Venice, 224. 
Gudrea, palace of, 27. 
Cniildhalls, Belgian, 175. 

Haddon Hall, 144, 267, 270. 
Halicarnassus, mausoleum at, 45. 
Hampton Court, 132, 242, 278. 
Hardwick House, 270, 272. 
Hatfield House, Herts, 270-272. 
Havenius, Theodore, architect, 

Heidelberg Castle, 247, 249. 
Henry Vllth's Chapel, London, 

Hereford Cathedral, 142. 
Herrara, architect, 256, 258. 
Holbein, artist, 265. 
Holland House, Kensington, 270. 
Holt, Thomas, architect, 269. 
Hotel de Cluny, Paris, 168. 

Ictinus, architect, 41. 

Iffley Church, Oxon, 104, 148, 

Ightham Mote, 143. 
Ilissus, temple on the, 38, 42. 
Invalides, Paris, 239. 
Ionic Order, 36, 42, 76. 

Jansen, Bernard, architect, 270. 
Jerusalem, Holy Sepulchre at, 

John of Padua, architect, 268. 
Jones, Inigo, architect, 273. 
Jupiter at Olympia, temple of, 

Jupiter Nemeus, temple of, 40. 
Jupiter Olympius at Athens, 

temple of, 38, 56. 
Jupiter Stator, temple of, 56. 
Jupiter Tonans, temple of, 56. 

Karnac, small south temple at, 


Temple at, 15. 
Kensington Palace, 278. 
Kettering Church, Northants, 159. 
Khorsabad, palace at, 24, 26. 

Temple at, 25. 
King's College, Cambridge, 154, 

Kirby Hall, Northants, 270, 271. 
Klenze, architect, 248. 


Knole House, Kent, 268, 270. 
Koyunjik, mound of, 23. 
Palace of, 26, 31. 

Laach, church at, 128. 
Lambeth Palace Chape], 150. 
Laon Catliedral, 169. 
Layer Marney Towers, 132. 
Leaning Tower of Pisa, 108. 
Leipsig, Rathhaus, 248. 
Le Mans Cathedral, 169. 
Leon Cathedral, 194, 197. 
Lescot, Pierre, architect, 236. 
Library of St. Mark's, Venice, 

Lichfield Cathedral, 139, 142, 

155, 169, 171. 
Liege, .St. Jacques, 176. 
Lincoln Cathedral, 139, 151, 155, 
168, 169. 

Jew's House, 145. 
Lion tomb at Cnidus, 45. 
Lippi, artist, 209. 
Little Wenham Hall, 160. 
Lombardo, architect, 224. 
London, Banqueting House, 
Whitehall, 274. 

Bow Church, Cheapside, 203, 

Chelsea Hospital, 278. 

Crosby Hall, 143. 

Dutch Church, Austin Friars, 


Geological Museum, Picca- 
dilly, 223. 

Greek Church, Bayswater, 99. 

Henrv Vllth's Chapel, 158- 

Holford House, 216. 

Holland House, Kensington, 

Kensington Palace, 278. 

Lambeth Palace Chapel, 150. 

Lincoln's Inn Fields, houses 
in, 274. 

Marlale Arch, 66. 

Monument, 278. 

Paul Pindar's House, Bishops- 
gate, 269. 

London, St. Bartholomew's, .Smith- 
field, 148. 

St. Bride'.s, Fleet Street, 278. 

St. Etheldreda, Holborn, 155, 

.St. James's, Piccadilly, 278. 

.St, John's Chapel, Tower of 
London, 148, 153. 

St. Martin's, Ludgate, 261. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, 203, 
205, 220, 275, 276. 

St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 274. 

St. Peter's, Eaton Square, 38. 

St. Saviour's, South wark, 150. 

St. -Stephen's, Walbrook, 278. 

.Savoy Chapel, 158. 

Staple Inn, 269. 

Temple Church, 86, 150. 

Westminster Abbey, 143,150, 

155, 171- 

Westminster Hall, 143, 155, 

White Tower, 143, 148. 
Longford Castle, Wilts, 270. 
Longhena, architect. 224. 
Longleat, Wilts, 268, 271. 
Loredan Palace, Venice, 112. 
Losely Park, 270. 
Louvain Townhall, 174. 
Louvre, Paris, 236. 
Lucca, Cathedral, 108, 182. 

St. Michele, 108. 
Luxembourg Palace, Paris, 237. 
Luxor, temple at, 15. 
Lysicrates, Choragic monument of, 

Madama Villa, Rome, 217. 
Madeleine, Paris, 240. 
Maderno, architect, 219, 231. 
Maison Carree, Nimes, 38, 56. 
Malaga Cathedral, 260. 
Malines, St. Rombaut, 175. 
Manepthah, tomb of, 12. 
Mansard, Jules Hardouin, archi- 
tect, 237, 239. 
Mantua, palazzo del Te, 217, 

St. Andrea, 212. 



Marble Arch, London, 66. 
Masaccio, architect, 209. 
Massimi Palace, Rome, 216. 
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, 45. 
Maxentius, basilica of, 60. 
Mayence Cathedral, 128. 
Medinet Habou, 14. 
Merton College, Oxford, 159. 

Quadrangle, 269. 
Messina Cathedral, 188. 
Michael Angelo, architect and 
painter, 190, 207, 210, 216, 
218, 219. 
Michelozzo, architect, 209. 
Milan, Cathedral, 184, 189, 220. 

hospital at, 182, 185,229, 236. 

St. Ambrogio, 112, 117. 

St. Maria della Grazie, 215, 
Minerva Aledica, temple of, 67. 
Minerva Polias, Priene, 43. 
Mnesicles, architect, 41. 
Monreale Cathedral, 115, 118, 

Mens, St. Wandiu, 176. 
Mont St. Michel, Chateau de, 168. 
Monument, London, 278. 
Moreton Hall, Cheshire, 268. 
Murillo, painter, 262. 
Mycenae, Greek remains at, 44. 

Pelasgic work at, 55. 

tomb of Atreus, 37. 

Neville's Court, Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 268. 

Nike Apteros, temple of, 42. 

Nimes, Maison Carree, 38, 56. 
Pont du Card, 68. 

Nimroud, palace at, 26. 

Nineteenth century (first half), 
English buildings and ar- 
chitects, 285. 
(second half), 289. 

Nineveh Palace, 26, 31. 

Norwich Cathedral, 139, 142. 

Nuremberg, Pellerhaus, 248. 

Obelisks, 15. 

Olympia, temple of Jupiter at, 41. 

Orange, theatre at, 63. 
Orders, Composite, 77. 

Corinthian, 36, 43, 76. 

Doric, 36, 40, 76. 

Ionic, 36, 42, 76. 

Tuscan, 75. 
Orvieto Cathedral, 182, 188, 189. 
Ospedale Grande, Milan, 182, 

185, 229, 236. 
Oviedo Cathedral, 198. 
Oxford, colleges at, 159. 

Divinity schools, 154. 

Gateway of the schools, 269, 

Merton college, 159. 
,, ,, quadiangle, 269. 

St. John's college quadrangle, 

Sheldonian theatre, 275. 
Wad ham college, quadrangle, 


Ptestum, temple at, 40. 
Palace, Caesars', Rome, 69. 

Caprarola, 217, 236. 

Diocletian's Spalatro, 69. 

Eltham, 156. 

Escurial, 258. 

Fontainebleau, 235, 243. 

Gudaja, 27. 

Khorsabad, 23, 26. 

Luxembourg, Paris, 237. 

Nimroud, 26. 

Nineveh, 26, 31. 

Persepolis, 28. 

^^ersailles, 237. 
Palais de Justice, Rouen, 167. 
Palazzo Bianco, Genoa, 230. 

del Te, Mantua, 217, 243. 

Pompeii, Verona, 226. 

Rosso, Genoa, 230. 
Palermo, Capella Palatina, 1 16. 

Cathedral, 188. 
Palladio, architect, 224, 225, 275. 
Pandolfini palace, Florence, 21 1, 

Pansa, House of, Pompeii, 71- 
Pantheon, Paris, 240. 
Pantheon, Rome, 38, 57, 220. 


Paris, Cathedral, 166, 167, 169, 
170, 171, 179. 

H6tel de Cluny, 168. 

Invalides, 239. 

Louvre, 236. 

Luxembourg Palace, 237. 

Madeleine, 240. 

Pantheon, 240. 

St. Etienne du Mont, 239. 

St. Eustache, 234, 239. 

Tuileries, 237. 
Parthenon, 38, 40, 41, 45. 
Passagardffi, remains at, 27, 
Pavia, Certosa at, 185, 230. 

St. Michele, 102, 112, 129. 
Pazzi Chapel, Florence, 212. 
Pellerhaus, Nuremberg, 248. 
Penshurst Place, 143, 268, 270. 
Perigueux, St. Front, 121. 
Perrault, architect, 237. 
Persepolis, remains at, 27, 28. 
Peruzzi, architect, 216, 219. 
Pesaro Palace, Venice, 224. 
Peterborough Cathedral, 139, 140, 

Phidias, sculptor, 41. 
Philoe, temple at, 17. 
Piacenza, S. Antonio, 112. 
Pierrefonds, Chateau de, 168. 
Pindar's house, Bishopsgate, 269. 
Pisa, baptistery, 108. 

Cathedral. 107, 1 18. 
Leaning Tower, 108. 
Pistoia Cathedral, loS. 
Pitti palace, Florence, 21 1, 212, 

Pompeii, house of Pansa, 71. 

Street of Tombs, 67. 
Pont du Card, Nlmes, 31. 
Priene, Temple of Minerva Polias, 

Propyla^a, Athens, 41, 42, 45. 
Pyramid of Cestius, Rome, 67. 
Pyramids, Egypt, 9, 10. 

Raphael, architect and painter, 

190, 216, 219. 
Rathhaus, Cologne, 248. 
Leipsig, 248. 

Ratisbon Cathedral, 148,149. 
Ravenna, St. Vitale, 67, 84, 94, 
tomb of Galla Placida, 94. 
tomb of Theodoric, 94. 
Redentore church, Venice, 224. 
Rhamession, 15. 
Rhamnus, temple at, 38. 
Rheims Cathedral, 166. 
Riccardi palace, 211. 
Rimini, St. Francesco, 212. 
Rochester Castle, 134, 142, 148. 
Rococo style in Italy, buildings in, 

in Spain, buildings in, 259. 
Roman Empire, map of, 50. 
Roman theatres, 63. 
Romano, architect, 217. 
Rome, Antoninus and Faustina, 

arch of .Septimius Severus, 66. 

arch of Titus, 66. 

baptistery of Constantine, 85. 

basilica of Maxentius, 60. 

baths of Caracalla, 61. 

baths of Diocletian, 83. 

Cancellaria palace, 215. 

Capitol, 218. 

Cloaca Maxima, 55. 

Colosseum, 2, 64. 

Farnese palace, 216. 

Farnese villa, 216. 

Fortuna Virilis, temple of, 56. 

Giraud palace, 215. 

Jupiter Stator, temple, 56. 

Jupiter Tonans, temple, 56. 

Massimi palace, 216. 

Minerva Medica, 67. 

palace of the Ciesars, 69. 

Pantheon, 38, 57, 220. 

Pyramid of Cestius, 67. 

.St Agnese, baptistery, 85. 

St. Agnese, basilica, 83. 

St. Clemente, 82, 197. 

St. John Lateran, 83. 

St. John Lateran, cloisters, 108. 

.St. Lorenzo, 83. 

St. Maria Maggiore, 84. 

St. Paul's basilica, 83. 

X 2 



Rome, St. Peter's basilica, 83, 84. 

St. Peter's Cathedral, 2 1 8, 220, 

St. Peter's in Montorio, 215. 

St. Stephano Rotundo, bap- 
tistery, 85. 

Sistine chapel, 190, 207, 218. 

tomb of Cecilia Metella, 67. 

tomb of Hadrian, 67. 

Trajan's basilica, 59- 

Trajan's column, 66. 

Vatican, Belvidere court, 215, 


Vatican, Loggie, 217. 

Vesta, 57. 

villa of Pope Julius, 217. 

Villa Madama, 217. 
Rouen, Palais de Justice, 167, 

St. Ouen, 166. 
Ruccellai palace, Florence, 211, 

St. Agnese, Rome, 83. 

St. Agnese, baptistery, 85. 

St. Alban's Abbey, 148. 

St. Ambrogio, Milan, 1 12, 117. 

St. Andrea, Mantua, 212. 

St. Antonio, Piacenza, 112. 

St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, 

St. Bride's, Fleet Street, London, 

.St. Clemente, Rome, 82, 197. 
St. Cunibert, Cologne, 128. 
St. Etheldreda, Holborn, 155, 156. 
St. Etienne du Mont, 239. 
St. Eustache, Paris, 234, 239. 
St. Francesco, Venice, 224. 
St. Francesco, Rimini, 212. 
St. Francis, Assissi, 188. 
St. Front, Perigueux, 121. 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 

154, 158, 160. 
St. Gilles, Aries, 121. 
St. Giorgio Maggiore, 224. 
.St. Gregorio, Valladolid, 256. 
St. Jacques, Liege, 176. 
St. James, Piccadilly, 278. 
St. John Lateran, Rome, 83. 

St. John Lateran, Rome, cloisters, 

St. John's Chapel, Tower of Lon- 
don, 104, 148, 153. 

St. John's College, Oxford, Quad- 
rangle, 273. 

St. Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, 

St. Lorenzo, Rome, 83. 

St. Maria dei Miracoli, 224. 

St. Maria del Mar, 196, 198. 

.St. Maria della Grazie, Milan, 
215, 229. 

St. Maria della .Salute, Venice, 

St. Maria in Capitolio, Cologne, 

St. Maria Maggiore, Rome, 84. 

St. Mark's, Venice, 95. 

St. Martin's, Cologne, 128. 

St. Martin's, Ludgate, 261. 

St. Michele, Lucca, 108. 

St. Michele, Pavia, 102, 112, 129. 

St. Miniato, Florence, 86, 109. 

St. Nicholas, Caen, T22. 

.St. Nicolo, Bari, 116. 

.St. Ouen, Rouen, 166. 

St. Paul's basilica, Rome, 83. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 203, 
205, 220, 275, 276. 

St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 274. 

St. Peter's basilica, Rome, 83, 84. 

St. Peter's Cathedral, Rome, 218, 
220, 276. 

St. Peter's, Eaton Square, Lon- 
don, 38. 

St. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 

St. Rombaut, Malines, 175. 

St. Saviour's South wark, 150. 

St. Sergius and Bacchus, Con- 
stantinople, 94. 

St. Sernin, Toulouse, 198. 

St. Sophia, Constantinople, 92, 

St. Spirito, Florence, 212. 

St. Stephano Rotundo, Rome, 
baptistery, 85. 

St. Stephen's, Caen, 122. 


St. Stephen's, Vienna, 179. 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 278. 
St. Trophime, Aries, 121. 
.St. Vitale, Ravenna, 67, 84, 94, 

St. Wandru, Mons, 176. 
St. Zaccaria, Venice, 224. 
St. Zenone, Verona, 112. 
Salisbury Cathedral, 139, 141, 

150, 155, 168, 169. 
Sangallo, architect, 216, 219. 
.San Micheli, architect, 224, 226. 
Sansovino, architect, 223. 
Santiago Cathedral, 260. 
Saragossa, Casa Infanta, 260. 
Savoy Chapel, London, 158. 
Scamozzi, architect, 223. 
-Schinkel, architect, 248. 
Selinus, great temple at, 38. 
Septimius Severus, arch of, 66. 
Seville, Cathedral, 184, 196, 198. 

town hall, 257. 
Sheldonian theatre. Oxford, 275. 
Siena Cathedral, 182, 187, 189. 
Sistine chapel, Rome, 190, 207, 

.Smithson, R. , architect, 268. 
Soufflot, architect, 240. 
Spalatro, Diocletian's palaceat, 69. 

temple at, 58. 
Sphinx, Egypt, 10. 
Spires Cathedral, 122, 128. 
Stadthaus, Amsterdam, 252. 
Staple Inn, London, 269. 
Strasbourg Cathedral, 178. 
Strozzi Palace. Florence, 211. 
.Stuttgart, castle at, 248. 
Susa, remains at, 27, 28. 

Temple Church, 86, 150. 
Temple, Agrigentum. 41. 

Antoninus and Faustina, 
Rome, 56. 

Apollo Epicurius, Bassce, 41, 

Baalbec, 56. 
Birs Nimroud, 25. 
Corinth, 34, 37, 41. 
Diana at Ephesus, 43. 

Temple, Diocletian at Spalatro, 58. 
Edfou, 15, 
Eleusis, 38. 

Erechtheion, Athens, 43, 45. 
Fortuna Viriiis, Rome, 56. 
Ilissus, 38, 42. 
Jupiter at Olympia, 41. 
Jupiter Nemeus, 40. 
Jupiter Olympius, Athens, 38, 

Jupiter Stator, Rome, 56. 
Jupiter Tonans, Rome, 56. 
Karnac, great temple, 15; 

small south temple, 13. 
Khorsabad, 25. 
Luxor, 15. 

Maison Carree, Nimes, 38, 56. 
Medinet Habou, 15. 
Minerva Medica, Rome, 67. 
Minerva Polias, Priene, 43. 
Nike Apteros, 42. 
Paestum, 40. 
Pantheon, Rome, 40, 41, 45, 


Phiki?, 17. 

Rhamession, 15. 

Rhamnus, 38. 

.Selinus, .Sicily, 38. 

Thebes, 14. 

Theseion, Athens, 38, 41. 

Vesta, Rome, 57. 

Vesta, Tivoli, ^S, 39, 57. 

Zeus, -Egina, 41. 
Theatre at Orange, 63. 
Theatres, Greek, 44, 63. 

Roman, 63. 
Thebes, temple at, 14. 
Theodoric, tomb of, Ravenna, 94. 
Theseion, Athens, 38, 41. 
Thornhill, Sir James, artist, 284. 
Thorpe, John, 268, 270. 
Tiryns, Greek remains at, 44. 

Pelasgic work at, 55. 
Titus, arch ofj 66. 
Tivoli, temple of Vesta at, 38, 39. 

Todi, church at, 216. 
Toledo, Alcazar, 257. 
bridge at, 69. 



Toledo, Cathedral, 194. 

St. Juan de los Reyes, 196. 
Tombs, Atreus at Mycena?, 37. 

Beni Hassan, 12. 

Cecilia Metella, Rome, 67. 

Galla Placida, Ravenna, 94. 

Hadrian, Rome, 67. 

1 lalicarnassus, 45. 

Henrv Vllth's, Westminster 
Abbey, 261;. 

Lion tomb, Cnidus, 45. 

Manepthah, 12. 

Street of, Pompeii, 67. 

Theodoric, Ravenna, 94. 
Torcello, apse at, 84. 
Torrigiano, artist, 265- 
Toulouse, St. Sernin, 198. 
Tournai Cathedral, 173, 174. 
Tower of the Winds, Athens, 38, 

43. 4';- 

Town liall, Seville, 257. 
Town halls, Belgian, 174. 
Trade halls, Belgian, 175. 
Trajan's basilica, Rome, 59. 

column, Rome, 66. 
Treves, Cathedral at, 129. 
Trinity College. Cambridge, li- 
brary, 278. 

Neville's court, 268. 
Tuileries, Paris, 237. 
Tuscan order, 75. 

Ulm Cathedral, 178. 
University, Alcala, 257. 

Valladolid Cathedral, 259. 

St. Gregorio, 2';6. 
Vatican, Rome, Belvedere court, 
215, 243. 

Loggie, 217. 
Vaulting, synopsis of, 153, 
Vendramini ])alace, Venice, 223. 
Venice, Ca d'Oro palace, 186. 

church of Redentore, 224. 

Cornaro palace, 224. 

Doge's palace, 185, 222, 223. 

Fondaco dei Turchi, 112. 

Grimani palace, 224. 

palazzo Loredan, 112. 

Venice, palazzo Farsetti, 112. 
Pesaro palace, 224. 
St. Francesco, 224. 
St. Giorgio Maggiore, 224, 
.St. Maria dei Miracoli, 224. 
St. Maria della Salute, 224. 
St. Mark's Cathedral, 95. 
library, 223. 
.St. Zaccaria, 224. 
Vendramini palace, 223. 
Zecca, or Mint, 223. 
Verona, churches at, 185. 

palazzo del Consiglio, 207, 

palazzo Pompeii, 226. 
St. Zenone, 112. 
campanile, 113. 
Verrio, artist, 284. 
Vesta, Rome, temple of, 57. 

Tivoli, temple of, 39, 57. 
Versailles, palace at, 237. 
Vicenza, church at, 185. 
town hall, 226. 
villa del Capra, 226. 
Vienna Cathedral (St. Stephen's), 

Vignola, ai'chitect, 217, 219, 235, 

236, 275. 
Vignon, architect, 240. 
Villa at Chiswick, 274. 

del Capra, Vicenza, 226. 
of Pope Julius, Rome, 217. 

Wadham College, Oxford, quad- 
rangle, 269. 
Wells Cathedral, 142, 171. 
Westminster Abbey, 143, 150,155, 
Hall, 143, 155, 205. 
,, roof, 160. 
West wood, Worcester, 261. 
White Tower, London, 143. 
William of Sens, architect, 134. 
William of Wykeham, architect, 

Wilton House, Wilts, 274. 
Winchester Cathedral, 142, 158. 
Windsor, St. George's Chapel, 

154, 158, 160. 


Wollaton, Notts, 268. 

Worcester Cathedral, 139, 142. 

Worms Cathedral, 128. 

Worth Church, 146. 

Wren, Sir Christopher, architect, 

203, 274. 
Wyckham Church, 146. 

York Cathedral, 141, 147, 151, 155. 
Ypres Cathedral, 174. 
trade hall, 175. 

Zecca, or Mint, Venice, 223. 
Zeus, yEgina, temple of, 41. 
Zwinger palace, Dresden, 248. 

Note. ^Buildings and architects of England of the i8th and 19th 
centuries are not ])lace(l in this Index, but will be found in a tabulated 
form on pages 280-293. 


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